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CAMBODIA

This profile is represented by the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training, and National Technical Training Institute (NTTI). SEA-VET.NET shall supplement more information from other TVET line Ministries, private TVET institutions and relevant agencies in the course of time. Please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to share relevant information to help us further develop the profile. 

Key Indicators


  • Capital

    Phnom Penh 

  • Main Industries/Sectors

    Manufacturing (Textile, Wearing Apparels, Footwear); Agriculture (Rice)


Economy

TVET

Overview

Cambodia’s demographic transition has opened a window of opportunity as a large proportion of the population is of a working age, which includes a sizeable segment of those about to enter the labour markets. The population distribution in Figure 1 shows the relatively large age cohort comprising those aged 20–24 years. The largest age cohort, ages 10–14, will be joining the workforce in just a few years.           

However, making use of this opportunity remains a challenge. According to the last labour force survey in 2012, only about 28% of Cambodia’s working age population of 10.7 million had completed secondary education, and only 1% attended vocational training; while 2% attended university. It will be critical for Cambodia’s continued socio- economic development not only to encourage increased access to technical training for new labour markets entrants but also to upgrade the skills and competencies of the existing workforce.

 

Figure 1: Population Pyramid of Cambodia, 2008 and 2013 (Cambodia Inter-Censal Population Survey, 2013)

Mission

The vision of TVET national policy 2017-2025 is to improve the livelihood and dignity of people, and to enhance Cambodian workforce’s knowledge, competence, skills, working attitudes, professional ethics, high productivity and competitiveness.

This policy aims:

  • To improve TVET quality to meet national and international demands;
  • To increase equitable access to TVET for employment generation;
  • To promote Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and aggregate resources from stakeholders to support the sustainable development of the TVET system; and
  • To improve the governance of the TVET system
Legislation

For the development of TVET in Cambodia, the Government of Cambodia established the MLVT Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018, the TVET Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018, the Industrial Development Policy 2015-2025, the National Employment Policy 2015-2025 and the National TVET Policy 2017-2025, which contains all the latest goals and strategies that are to be achieved.

Moreover, as the government has recognized the challenges of skills shortage and skills mismatches, ensuring education and TVET are responding to the needs of the labour market is pivotal. The National Employment Policy 2015-2025 addresses this issue in the following:

  • Developing sector-based approaches in education and TVET for higher-level skills in priority sectors;
  • Strengthening and promoting collaboration between education and TVET providers and the private sector to reduce the skills gap;
  • Encouraging work-based learning, promoting internships and apprenticeships;
  • Strengthening and further developing existing institutional mechanisms and creating new mechanisms to allow for better and regular dialogues among stakeholders of education and training;
  • Promoting and encouraging the private sector to play an active role in providing policy information, skills development, training delivery, and finance training;
  • Developing mutual recognition of skills programs within ASEAN;
  • Conducting research and development for new technologies; and
  • Monitoring and evaluating the relevance of the labour market for education and TVET.

Education and TVET strategies are designed to ensure that youth are equipped with the skills that match industry needs. Quality Assurance Systems and the reform of the TVET teacher training curriculum are being undertaken to ensure quality TVET programmes and that TVET trainers have up-to-date and industry-matched knowledge and skills. Youth, especially school drop-outs, are prioritized given their potential role in the labour markets and the national economic development. The National Employment Agency (NEA) has been working towards addressing youth employment by:

  • Providing information service to job seekers, employers, training providers, and the general public;
  • Conducting study/research and developing a labour market information system;
  • Providing accurate labour market information data.
Strategy

To ensure the quality of TVET provision,

  1. A Quality Assurance mechanism was established,
  2. The TVET teacher training curriculum was updated, which includes a Return-to-Industry concept, and
  3. The Cambodian Qualification Framework for TVET is being designed in a way to align with the Regional Qualification Framework.

To ensure equitable access to TVET, education and training provision is open for private sector providers as well. Besides that, the private sector plays an important role in the development of TVET in Cambodia and they are cooperating with the MLVT by:

  1. Providing internship and job opportunities to students who have graduated
  2. Collaborate in developing standard training packages (competency standards, competency based curriculum and competency assessment packages)
  3. Providing tools and equipment to TVET schools
  4. Providing information regarding skills need

Furthermore, under the TVET national policy 2017-2025, MLVT has committed to transform low-skill workers to medium- and high-skilled workers to reach the RGC goal, i.e. Cambodia becoming upper-middle income country by 2030 and a developed country by 2050.

Governance

According to UNESCO (2013), the governance model of the Cambodian TVET system has been evolving on four main fronts over the last decade. The first front has been the setting up of an entity with specific responsibilities for setting standards, certification, assessment and evaluation of the TVET system. The second front is the more recent policy decision to decentralise. The third front relates to school empowerment and autonomy. The last front is about the involvement of civil society and social partners in policy decision making. 

Until 2004, formal TVET was under the Office of Technical and Vocational Training of the MoEYS. The office was directly responsible for the administration and development of TVET and for the management of its institutions and programmes. In 2005, the responsibilities for TVET were transferred from MoEYS to the newly constituted MoLVT under a Directorate General of TVET (DGTVET). Responsibilities for non-formal and informal (short course) vocational training were similarly transferred to the new ministry from the Ministry of Social Welfare.

The key players within the Cambodian TVET system include

  • The Ministry of Labour and Technical and Vocational Education and Training (MoLVT)
  • The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS)
  • Education and labour local authorities
  • Provincial Training Centres
  • Community Learning Centres
  • Schools (especially those designated as resources centres)
  • Employers’ organizations (CAMFEBA)
  • Private companies
  • NGOs
  • National Employment Agency (NEA)
  • National Training Board (NTB)

The National Training Board (NTB) is the head decision of TVET sector in Cambodia. It approves policy, sets program objectives and establishes measurable targets. The NTB has a coordinating function and assumes the leadership role in linking a national training program to the needs of the economy by the National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP). The members of the NTB consist of representatives from different ministries as well as from the private sector, employees, training providers, international organizations and non-government organizations. The NTB, which consists of representatives from all 14 ministries and training institutions, is responsible for policy direction and coordination.

With regards to the institutes, regional training centres (RTCs) and provincial training centres (PTCs), DGTVET provides leadership and guidance in the development of the vision, the mission and the strategic direction as well as in mentoring and training of the senior management to develop management capacity. DGTVET sets objectives, allocates resources and monitors output.

The chart below illustrates the NTB structure:

Figure 2: NTB Structure (UNESCO, 2013)

Figure 3 illustrates Cambodia’s TVET governance arrangements; with NTB as the most important policy-setting authority. It sets performance standards for all TVET system participants. The NTB is expected to set occupation and certification standards.

Figure 3: Cambodia’s TVET governance arrangements (UNESCO, 2013)

Financing

Government, international organisations, donors and others stakeholders finance TVET in Cambodia. The government and non-governmental funds are allocated by the NTB throughout the National Training Fund, which was established in 1998. Furthermore, the Asian Development Bank is the major donor agency which has been funding TVET since 1992 in Cambodia. (UNESCO-IBE, 2011).

In 2009, the recurrent budget for MoLVT was set at USD12.735 million, of which USD9.22 million was earmarked for central administration and USD3.515 million for provinces and cities (UNESCO, 2013). In addition, a triennium capital expenditure budget (2009–2011) was set at 8.167 million dollars, of which 1.24 million was set down for expenditure in the 2009 financial year.

Since its creation in 2005 with a budget of 2.949 million dollars, the MoLVT’s recurrent funding has increased nearly 350% over the five years period or on average just over 45 per cent year on year. While full disaggregation and allocation of the budget data is not possible, it seems that approximately 50% of the recurrent annual allocations to the (2009) were for training provision in PTCs and for long-course institutes (DGTVET, 2009).

Below is government budget for TVET from 2013 to 2017:

Year

Government Budget for TVET (in million USD)

2013

8.33

2014

4.05

2015

9.1

2016

16.02

2017

12.82

Noted: 1USD= 4 000 Riel

The Government budget is allocated to achieve the following main objectives:

  • Improvement of the quality of TVET
  • Increasing access to TVET
  • Strengthening of governance and management of TVET

Furthermore, the TVET Sector Development Project 2015-2021 is a project in the framework of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) with a total cost of USD 42.26 million (ADB=23.0 Million, AFD=15.00million, RGC=4.26 million).

The project has four outputs:

  1. increased access to TVET programs
  2. improve quality and relevance of TVET system
  3. increased involvement of employers in TVET delivery
  4. strengthened governance and management of the TVET system

Output1: Increased access to TVET programs

  • Sub-output 1.1: Introduction of the Vocational Skills Certification (VSC) at Cambodia Qualification Framework (CQF) Level 1
  • Sub-output 1.2: Development and implementation of Recognition of Prior Learning and Current Competencies (RPLCC)
  • Sub-output 1.3: Establishment of stipend program for CQF levels 2-4 for disadvantaged youth and women
  • Sub-output 1.4: Piloting Women’s dormitories with career mentorship program
  • Sub-output 1.5: Promoting social marketing of TVET

Output2: Improve quality and relevance of TVET system     

  • Sub-output 2.1: Strengthening TVET Quality Assurance System
  • Sub-output 2.2: Establishment of TVET competency-based assessment and certification system
  • Sub-output 2.3: Improving TVET instructor training system
  • Sub-output 2.4: Enhancing Vocational Skills Training Programs
  • Sub-output 2.5: Enhancing Skills Bridging Programs
  • Sub-output 2.6: Improving learning environment in TVET facilities
  • Sub-output 2.7: Developing human resource management policy frameworks for instructors in public TVET institutions

Output3: Increased involvement of employers in TVET delivery

  • Sub-output 3.1: Strengthening internship program
  • Sub-output 3.2: Establishment of Sector Skills Council (SSC)
  • Sub-output 3.3: Establishment of Centres of Excellence (COEs)

Output4: Strengthened governance and management of the TVET system

  • Sub-output 4.1: Strengthening RTCs and training centres at provincial level to offer CQF level 2 and above courses
  • Sub-output 4.2: Strengthening financing of public TVET institutions
  • Sub-output 4.3: Improving information management system
  • Sub-output 4.4: Supporting NEA and DLMI to generate relevant and timely Labour Market Information
System

NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

The education system in Cambodia consists of four levels: pre-school education, primary education, secondary education (lower and upper), and higher education. Six years of primary education and three years of lower secondary education make up the country’s basic education provision. 

After the completion of lower secondary education, students have the choice of continuing to upper secondary education or of entering secondary-level vocational training programmes offered by the MoLVT. After completing upper secondary education, students can either enter vocational training (lasting from one to three years depending on the programme) or universities (which offer two-year associate degree programmes, four-year bachelor’s degree programmes, and seven-year medical programmes). 

The Non-formal Education Department of the MoEYS plays an important role in providing literacy and life skill programmes, as well as short-term vocational training to school dropouts and adults.

 Figure 4: Education system and Training in Cambodia

Enrolment in TVET Systems

The TVET system in Cambodia includes all forms of learning and development with a major technical or vocational component. This comprises formal technical or vocational education provision, whether in school, college, university, training or work settings, formal training programmes, less formal / more informal learning while working, and other forms of learning which may be self- directed or involve peer learning (UNESCO, 2013).

In addition to that, the requirement of enrolment to TVET stream are as follows:

Level

Technical and Vocational Education and Training

Requirements

8

Doctoral degree

Holding Master’s degree (technology or business)

7

Master’s degree (technology or business)

Holding Bachelor’s degree (technology or business)

6

Bachelor’s degree (technology or business)

Holding high school certificate or holding higher diploma (technology or business)

5

Higher diploma (technology or business)

Holding C3 or complete grade 12 in general education

4

Technical and Vocational Certificate 3 (C3)

Holding C2

3

Technical and Vocational Certificate 2 (C2)

Holing C1

2

Technical and Vocational Certificate 1 (C1)

Completed grade 9 or holding skill bridging certificate

1

Vocational Certificate

No requirement


There is a possibility for people who drop out of school to attend non-formal literacy and life-skills programs, which is important in a sense that it gives them access to enrollment in technical and vocational education training offered by various institutions.

Formal TVET

After compulsory education, which consists of a six year primary school followed by a three- year lower secondary school, students can enroll in the formal TVET programmes or continue to the three-year upper secondary general education. Upper secondary TVET programmes are offered at three different levels (each lasting one-year) in a wide variety of areas, including vehicle repairing, general mechanics, computer technology, agricultural mechanics, electricity, electronics, repairing of cooling mechanics, and civil engineering.

The formal TVET system also recruits graduates from upper secondary schools, who have completed grade twelve. The duration of the training varies depending on the course, but it lasts a minimum of one-year. For instance, technical and professional training institutions offer programmes lasting two to three-years and leading to a certificate/high diploma (Diploma for Technician). Other providers of tertiary TVET are polytechnics and a small number of vocational training centres/schools.

In Cambodia, formal TVET provision covers four main levels:

  • Certificate level: Short courses from a few weeks to less than a year leading to certificates delivered in provincial or vocational training centres, or in communities;
  • Diploma level: Post grade 9 trade training in provincial and vocational training centres, leading to diplomas at three levels (for years 1, 2, and 3);
  • Higher diploma level. Post-grade 12 entry plus two years of study leading to a higher diploma in technical institutes and polytechnics;
  • Bachelor level: Entry either (a) post-grade 12 plus four years (or 4.5 years for engineering) leading to a bachelor degree in engineering, technology or business administration or (b) higher diploma plus two (or 2.5) years for the same degrees.

The table below highlighted enrolment by qualifications level in 2010:

Qualifications

Enrolment

Male

Female

Total

Bachelor & Upper

1,523

458

1,981

Diploma level

2,466

842

3,308

Certificate I, II, III

404

342

746

Source: DGVET in UNESCO (2013)

Formal TVET programmes are delivered mostly in polytechnics and technical institutes. There are 39 public TVET Institutes. They have been established through funding from Royal Government of Cambodia and there are 73 private TVET Institute and NGOs not funded by the state.

Non Formal TVET Programmes

According to UNESCO (2014), the provincial training centres and Vocational Training Centres, are the main providers of non formal TVET. However, there are also public institutions such as Provincial Training Centres (PTCs), Community Learning Centres (CLCs), Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Women’s Development Centres, private providers, and small businesses offering informal apprenticeships.The courses are short term and last from one to four months and focus basically on agriculture, construction, motor repairs and basic food processing (Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training, 2011, UNESCO, 2013).

There exist 22 PTCs which offer agriculture, craft and basic vocational skills. PTCs operate at a variance with each other in terms of enrolment, length of training and delivery modality. CLCs, under the MoEYS, offer literacy and basic vocational training for income generation. At the moment, there exist 157 CLCs.

According to DGVET, on the basis of official registration data, provincial data, directories, and advertising records, an estimated 750 private businesses offering fee-based training services were identified nationwide. The largest single group offered computer and/or English language training. Other providers were identified as driving schools, dance academies and small auto or electrical workshops, which offered informal apprenticeships.

In Service Training Programme

In-service training programmes are not regulated in Cambodia. Little information is available regarding the actors, the scale and the importance of in-service training. Quantitative information (with corresponding performance indicators) is limited to a relatively small scale of activity reported in a scattered way by CAMFEBA and other organizations.

There is evidence that few private enterprises are spending significant amounts on in-company technical and vocational training.

National Qualifications Framework

The CQF is the National instrument that develops and classifies qualifications based on a set of nationally agreed-upon criteria for specified learning levels. CQF encompass all levels of Education and Training in Cambodia, in service of the nation’s Human Resources Development. There are eight levels of qualifications and each level is differentiated by the general characteristic classified criteria that include minimum entrance requirements, typical duration, programme characteristics, cumulative duration in fulltime equivalent, type of subsequent education and learning outcomes. The framework has a credit system so that the volume learning may be recorded and students may receive credit for all qualifications.

The Cambodia Qualification Framework (CQF) is the national instrument that develops and classifies qualifications based on a set of criteria that is agreed nationally for specified levels of learning achieved. It is a policy and strategy in the quality assurance of education and training which clarifies the standard of learning outcomes, academic levels and the quality of qualifications, and is widely recognized as such as in the international academic and professional communities. Currently, Cambodia features its own qualification framework with 8 levels starting from Level 1, which enables students to get a Vocational Certificate by doing non-formal courses or being recognized for prior learning or current competencies (RPL, RCC). The main mandate of the Ministry is to produce skilled workers; therefore due attention should be paid to Levels 2, 3 and 4, which enable students to obtain Technical and Vocational Certificates. The CQF provides a framework for vertical pathways within TVET and lateral pathways between TVET and general education.

 Level

 Technical And Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

 Higher Education (H.E)

 8

 Doctoral Degree Of Technology/ Business Education

 Doctoral Degree

 7

 Master Degree Of Technology/Business Education

 Master Degree

 6

 Bachelor Of Technology/Business Education

 Bachelor Degree

 5

 Higher Diploma/Associate Degree Of Technology/Business Education

 Associate Degree

 4

 Technical And Vocational Certificate 3

 

 3

 Technical And Vocational Certificate 2

 2

 Technical And Vocational Certificate 1

 1

Vocational Certificate


As a member of ASEAN, the CQF (Cambodia Qualification Framework,) is aligned with the regional qualification framework through the process of referencing Cambodia is still in the process of developing a fully integrated CQF.

Quality Assurance & Standards

Quality Assurance of TVET in Cambodia is implemented through self-assessment and external assessment. Self-assessment is conducted within TVET institutions themselves while the external assessment is conducted by the Department of Quality Assurance. Both self- and external assessment follow a 5-point scale (from zero to four). There are some criteria in the assessment including:

  • (1) management and governance,
  • (2) physical resources,
  • (3) staff and teacher,
  • (4) student,
  • (5) curriculum, teaching and learning, and
  • (6) Research and development. These 6 criteria were approved the by National Training Board (NTB) on 17th February, 2012.

 

In addition to that, TVET programmes suffer several shortcomings in relation to quality assurance (World Bank, 2010; ADB, 2009):

  • TVET is shared across various ministries, leading to major coordination and harmonisation issues, as evidenced by the overlap in responsibilities for quality assurance across ministerial departments within i.e. the MoEYS and the MoLVT, for example, for non-formal TVET;
  • Programmes lack quality assured certificates and recognition of those certificates in the labour market;
  • The quality of training varies considerably, and small training centres and informal apprenticeship schemes often suffer from narrow theoretical knowledge, outdated technologies and an absence of formal recognition of the skills students have acquired;
  • Public TVET programmes and institutions tend to be poorly funded and have little interaction with the productive sector. Their reporting tends to focus more on enrolment rather than quality assurance and outcomes.
Graduates

TVET Graduates

The most popular courses among students in addition to the sectors that are considered financially rewarding include:

  • Construction
  • Auto mechanic
  • Electricity
  • ICT Business
  • Manufacturing

The number of TVET graduates in five consecutive academic years are shown in the table below:

Academic Year

Students Graduation

Total

Female

2012-2013

87,660

47,094

2013-2014

85,490

44,448

2014-2015

43,195

22,893

2015-2016

38,527

22,108

Total

254,872

136,543

Source: Department of Training/ Director General of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (DGTVET) Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MLVT).

Quality of graduates

In the recent reports of Employer Skills Need Survey in 2012 and 2014 (Bruni, Luch, &Kuoch, 2013; Kuoch, 2014), around 90 percent of employers surveyed reported TVET graduates (first-time job seekers) were well prepared. However, they still lack some significant skills as follows: life experience, technical or job-specific skills, poor attitude, foreign language skills, and communication skills.

Personnel (Teachers)

Composition of Teaching Workforce

We do not have data for age of teaching workforce for the time being. However, the data for male-female ratio is presented in the table below:

No.

Description

Leader/ Manager

Teacher

Permanence teacher

Contract staff

Assistance

1

Public TVET

Total

96

1,060

39

292

Female

18

336

10

112

2

Private TVET

Total

69

193

509

0

Female

15

39

117

0

3

NGOs TVET

Total

42

227

9

0

Female

26

128

4

0

4

Total

Total

207

1,480

557

292

Female

59

503

131

112

Ratio

29%

34%

24%

38%

Source: Department of Institution Management

Qualification and Selection of Teachers and Trainers

The basic qualification requirement of teachers/trainers is their competence in at least one level above the level that they provide the training. For example, the basic qualification of teachers/trainers for C1 (certificate level 1) is that he/she is competent in C2 (certificate level 2).

TVET teachers are selected among any citizens with maximum age level according to the degree they are holding. Selection is done through an examination, which includes the specialized subject (for example, civil engineering) and general knowledge. Up to 2016 TVET teachers training courses, which take place at National Technical Training Institute, were delivered as one-year courses. However, due to a change in curriculum design, the training course now stretches over one and a half years. The updated curriculum allows TVET teacher trainees to work in the industry for approximately six months to experience up-to-date technology to enhance their own course delivery and teaching.

The National Technical Training Institute (NTTI), founded officially in 1999, is a state-owned higher education institute under the direction of the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT). The NTTI is responsible for training selected university graduates to become capable and professional TVET teachers and upgrading trainers and administrative TVET staff. Teacher training is a one year programme consisting of thirty-seven credits. The NTTI also provides Vocational Technical Teacher Training Programme through which candidates can apply for Master, Bachelor and Diploma (Associate) degrees (World TVET Database Cambodia, 2014).

In addition to that, the Government has set a policy to train 300 TVET teachers every year and by 2012, more than 2000 teachers were trained (WDT Cambodia, 2014).

Salaries of Teachers/ Trainers / Instructors

Salary system for TVET teachers as well as other government officials – depends on many variables and individual situation and must be stated in context.. However, simplified as a rough orientation, it can be described as follows:

TVET teachers are categirized into two levels, A and B, for example, the TVET teaches in level A are paid higher wage (around USD 330) and normally hold a bachelor’s degree and equivalent, while Level B teachers’ salary is approximately USD 290. The teachers in Level B may hold a bachelor’s degree or higher diploma.

An incentive of aroud 3-4 percent salary increase is offered to experienced TVET teachers every two years.

Private Sector Cooperation

For the time being, the private sector is involved with TVET in terms of curriculum design, standards framework development, and competency assessment for some courses such as ICT, construction, electric, machinery, wielding etc (CQF level 1-4). This collaboration is not with a specific business association but with individual private enterprises. The ministry invites and discusses with the private sector. The Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MLVT) cooperates with the private sector on:

  • Providing internships and job opportunities to students who graduated
  • Collaborating to give input to develop standard training packages (competency standard, competency-based curriculum and competency assessment package)
  • Providing tools and equipment to TVET schools
  • Providing information about skills need

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is considered as an important institutional set-up to improve the quality and relevance of TVET. There are several organisations that can play an important role in developing a sound PPP in Cambodia. These organisations are acting at the national level and by sector. The Cambodian Federation of Employers and Business Associations (CAMFEBA) is an overarching body representing and safeguarding the rights and interests of employers in term of labour issues. The Garment Manufacturers Association of Cambodia (GMAC) is an employers’ organisation of the apparel industry. 

CAMFEBA’s work on youth and employment is a good example of employers’ strategic interest in human resources development. CAMFEBA is an overarching body representing and safeguarding the rights and interests of employers regarding labour issues. CAMFEBA also acts as a training provider with a view to (WDT Cambodia, 2014):

  • assist employers in strengthening their competitive edge through skills training and employee development;
  • provide employers with a comprehensive range of practical, generic and customized training and development programmes for employees’ skills upgrading; and
  • Update employers on the latest developments in human resources and industrial relations management.

GMAC identifies one of its missions as applying pressure on the Government to deliver an employment sector policy with more relevant programmes and appropriate certification. The association is planning to take a loan from the French development agency to set up a private vocational training centre focused on textiles and garments and with a strategic objective to develop skills which allow learners to move up the value chain (WDT Cambodia, 2014).

Current Trends & Practices

According to Oum and Ngov’s (2017) total labour demand and supply forecast, in 2019, the demand for labour will remain unchanged, exceeding the supply, particularly for the upper secondary (completed) level. Their forecasted employment by occupation (2017) shows that the average annual growth rate (2014-2019) of employment for technicians is around 2%, for plant and machine operators around 6%, while the annual growth rate of employment for professionals is the highest (around 15%).

By education level, the average annual growth rate of employment of TVET post-secondary diploma and pre-secondary diploma show the highest figures, around 16% and 21% respectively. They are followed by higher education, lower-secondary completed, and upper-secondary completed (around 8%, 6.5%, and 4.5% respectively).

Despite higher average annual growth rate of employment for TVET graduates, the share of TVET enrolment remains low if compared to the academic one. In Oum and Ngov (2017), the educational share of TVET is less than 2%.

To date, there is no empirical study on return to investment for TVET students. However, there is an increase in awareness of TVET by the public recently due to observed job needs as well as the effort to promote TVET on media.

Reforms/Projects

The TVET National Policy 2017-2025 is the roadmap to develop skills in Cambodia so Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and Directorate General of Technical and Vocational Education and Training are going to develop a strategy plan which will follow that policy.

Since the development process for TVET requires many steps, the Departments dealing with TVET have increased from 3 to 6 (1-Department of Labour Market Information, 2-Department of Training, 3-Department of Standard and Curriculum, 4-Department of Quality Assurance, 5-Department of Policy and Strategy and 6-Department of Institution Management). In ensuring the quality of TVET provision, the curriculum for TVET teacher trainees has been reformed this year in order to ensure that future TVET teachers have knowledge about TVET as well as the up-to-date knowledge in current technology used by the industry.

Key Issues & Challenges

According to the National Technical Vocational Education and Training Policy 2017-2025, the Royal Government of Cambodia has recognized some challenges to TVET as follows:

  1. The quality of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is not yet fully responsive to demands of the labour market. This is due to the lack of a quality assurance system, outdated training methodologies, inauthentic experience in the industry by technical trainers, as well as insufficient infrastructure, equipment choices, relevant regulations, industry-accepted assessment system for trainers and trainees including skills of migrants, before and after immigration.
  2. Lack of value attributed to Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Some people value only higher education (university) which causes the low enrolment in TVET. To date, a number of educational institutions have not yet widely provided guidance to students on the choice of learning and further study as well as the promotion of the importance of TVET. A more negative perception, which is common throughout ASEAN, has viewed TVET as “second-chance” and/or “second-rank” education for the poor, marginalized groups, and school drop- out youth. This also poses a big challenge on TVET enrolment to train workforces for existing and new growing industries.
  3. Limited financial resources for the Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system. Royal Government of Cambodia’s budget supporting this sector is insufficient because providing TVET training to build up qualified workforces with specific skills in order to respond to the current demand of industry and the long-term economic development, as well as competitiveness with workforces throughout the region, requires a huge amount of capital investment. The financial contribution from the private sector and respective stakeholders is essential to sustain the development of TVET.
  4. Limited pathways for mobility between Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) across all educational streams. Despite the approval of the Cambodian Qualifications Framework​ (CQF), the following challenges still persist:
    1. Limited connection between general education and TVET programs,
    2. Inadequate collaboration in training TVET trainers and learning material exchange between relevant ministries,
    3. Skill-bridging training programs and certification across ministries and relevant non-public training providers is not widely implemented, and
    4. Lack of information-sharing on the labour market as well as TVET information between stakeholders.
  5. Limited foundation and soft skills. Preparation of first-time job seekers is limited as they lack real life and work experiences, technical or employable skills, and motivation. Graduates often lack foundation skills such as reading, writing, mathematics, computing, communication abilities, team work and problem-solving skills. Technical skills, communication, team work, foreign languages, and customer relations are the five skills identified by enterprises to be reinforced.
  6. Limited involvement of stakeholders. The limited involvement of stakeholder impacts quality, cost efficiency, and responsiveness required of TVET, which poses a number of challenges including inadequate exposure to the industrial work by trainers, insufficient training programs, and the non-compliance of skills standard also causes the training to be less responsive to the demands of the labour market.
  7. Inadequate materials and financial support to trainees. At present, the lack of financial and decision-making support, and occupational guidance are the major challenges for youth in education. To continue in TVET, they point out some priority aspects such as dormitories, support for meals, and employment services upon graduation.
  8. Weakness in coordination and governance in the TVET system. Even though the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training is appointed by RGC to lead and to manage the TVET sector, as described in sub-degrees and circulation, implementation is inadequate as line ministries and institutes have not yet fully complied with the assignment of the RGC. Therefore, the coordination of the National Training Board (NTB) is crucial for implementing this national TVET policy among stakeholders.

Action Plan or Recommendations

To overcome these challenges, four main goals are set in the National TVET Policy:

  • To improve TVET quality to meet the national and international market demand through (1) the continuation in development and implementation of the QA, (2) the improvement of trainers’ quality and pedagogy, and infrastructure, and (3) the establishment of a Technical and Vocational Park in industry or economic zones to maximize utilization of equipment and trainers;
  • To increase equitable access to TVET for employment-generation through (1) provision of flexible pathways for enrolment in TVET, (2) the expansion of opportunities for women, marginalized groups, poor youth, and school dropouts, (3) the provision of career guidance and vocational skills, outreach-based marketing at provincial and local community levels, and (4) the establishment of a one-stop service with providing convenient services related to TVET;
  • To promote PPP and aggregate resources from stakeholders to support sustainable development of TVET through (1) enhancing PPP and partnership with stakeholders to develop training curriculums based on market needs and set up a National Skills Development Fund and (2) development of a student fees policy for TVET providers and scholarship provision for poor students, particularly women and indigenous people; and
  • To improve the governance of the TVET system through (1) strengthening of regulation frameworks for TVET to link skills training to labour market demands, (2) development of a result-based funding mechanism for operating TVET institutions, and (3) continuation of TVET Market Information System and Labour Market Information System development as well as the strengthening of a Labour Market Forecasting Analysis and a Skills Need Assessment.

 

Acronyms/Abbreviations

ADB

:

Asian Development Bank

ASEAN

:

Association of South East Asian Nation

CAMFEBA

:

Cambodian Federation of Employers and Business Associations

GMAC

:

Garment Manufacturers Association of Cambodia

CLC

:

Community Learning Centres

COE

:

Center of Excellence

CQF

:

Cambodia Qualification Framework

DLMI

:

Department of Labour Market and Industry

HDI      

:

Human Development Index

MoEYS

:

Ministry of Education Youth and Sport

MoLVT

:

Ministry of Labour and Vocational Education and Training

NEA

:

National Employment Agency

NSDP

:

National Strategic Development Plan

NTB

:

National Training Board

NTF

:

National Training Fund

NTTI

:

National Technical Training Institute

PPP      

:

Public Private Partnership

PTB

:

Provincial Training Board

PTC

:

Provincial Training Centre

QA

:

Quality Assurance

RGC

:

Royal Government of Cambodia

RPL

:

Recognition of Prior Learning

RPLCC

:

Recognition of Prior Learning and Current Competencies

RTC

:

Regional Training Centre

SSC

:

Sector Skills Council

UNESCO

:

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation

UNESCO-IBE

:

UNESCO International Bureau of Education

VSC

:

Vocational Skills Certification

References
  1. Asian Development Bank (2015) CDTA8942-CAM: Strengthening Capacity Development for National Skills Development
  2. Bruni, M., Luch, L., and Kuoch, S. (2013). Skills shortage and skills gap in the Cambodian labour market: evidence from employer skills need survey 2012.
  3. Department of Training/ Directorate General of Technical Vocational Education and Training (DGTVET) /Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MLVT)
  4. Kuoch, S. (2015). Skills shortage and skills gap in the Cambodian labour market: evidence from employer skills need survey 2014.
  5. Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training. (2018). 2013-2017 Results Report of Labour and Vocatioanl Training Strategic Plan 2014-2018 and Future Action Plan.
  6. Oum, S. and Ngov, P. H. (2017). Labour Demand and Supply Forecast for Cambodia. Slide presentation at Cambodian Economic Association seminar on 31st October, 2017.
  7. Royal Government of Cambodia. (2017). National Technical Vocational Education and Training Policy 2017-2025
  8. UNESCO (2013). Policy Review of TVET in Cambodia
  9. UNESCO – IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Cambodia
  • Population

  • Sex Ratio

    0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)b

  • HDI

    0.563 (2015)c

  • GDP (Total)

    $22.25 billion (2017 est.)b

  • GDP (Per Capita)

    $4,000 (2017 est.)b

  • Industry/Sectors (GDP Contribution)

    Agriculture: 25.3%
    Industry: 32.8%
    Services: 41.9% (2017 est.)b

  • Poverty Rate

    16.5% (2016 est.)b


Education

  • Education Index

    0.459 (2015)c

  • Adult Literacy Rate
    (% Ages 15 & Older)

    77.2% (2015)c

  • Expected Years of Schooling

    10.9 (2015)c

  • Mean Years of Schooling (Adults)

    4.7 (2015)c

  • School Dropout Rate

    53.1% (2013)c


Employment

  • Unemployment Rate (Total)

    0.5% (2015)c

  • Unemployment Rate (Youth - 15-24 Old)

    0.8% (2015)c

  • Composition of Workforce

    Agriculture: 48.7%
    Industry: 19.9%
    Services: 31.5% (2013 est.)b

  • a Population Pyramid
    b CIA World Factbook
    c UNDP HDR

    For official government data on key indicators, please refer to data released by official government source(s).

     

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