• Brunei
  • Cambodia
  • Indonesia
  • Laos
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Philippines
  • Singapore
  • Thailand
  • Timor Leste
  • Vietnam

Thailand

Key Indicators


  • Capital

    Bangkok

  • Main Industries/Sectors

    Automobiles & Automotive Parts; Electronics; Financial Services; Tourism

ECONOMY

TVET

Mission

The TVET mission in Thailand exists in relation to a national framework advocated by the government. The long-term strategy at the national level for all fields in Thailand is governed by the 20-year National Strategy. Additional strategy plans and blueprints of other government ministries and agencies are required to comply with the strategies identified in the National Strategy.

The 20-year National Strategy is vital to understanding any government policy in Thailand under the current Constitution. In the 2017 Constitution, it is stated that Thailand as a sovereign entity must follow a National Strategy towards sustainable development. This led to the formation of the Steering Committee for Creating the National Strategy Act, whose members comprise the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, senior government officials, heads of public organisations, Chambers of Commerce and Associations and academics. The Steering Committee members envisioned a national strategy that would see Thailand becoming a stable, prosperous and sustainable country and recognised as a developed nation through the application of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy.

In order to achieve this vision, six main strategies for Thailand were identified.

  1. Security and stability:

This strategy focuses on three levels: global security, regional security and internal security with the aim of protecting and strengthening Thailand’s security and autonomy along with the stability of its constitutional monarchy.

  1. Competitive advantage:

This aims to increase the GDP per capita in Thailand to $15,000 by 2036 along with GDP growth of 5-6% annually for 15 consecutive years. A further aim is for Thailand to increase its productivity by 3% annually.

  1. Human Resource development:

The goal is to develop Thailand’s human capital into one that is equipped with the skills required for the 21st Century, namely digital literacy, lifelong learning and ability in STEM fields in order to become a highly skilled workforce.

  1. Equal opportunity and social equality:

The strategy aims to achieve social inclusion, social empowerment and social cohesion in Thailand by the end of 2036.

  1. Environment:

This aims for reduction in energy consumption and the amount of greenhouse gases produced by 20-25% by 2030. It includes a goal to transform approximately 50 million acres (128 million rai) into forests.

  1. Civil service reform

The strategy aims to make the civil service more cost effective and efficient, whilst reducing the level of corruption. The aim is for Thailand to be ranked in the top 10 of the IMD survey and score no less than 80 points on the Corruption Perception Index.

According to the 2017 Constitution, the National Strategy 20 Years will be the primary strategy that additional strategies, blueprints and plans drafted by governmental agencies must link and align with it.

The following plans are additional plans for education and TVET, which emphasise on economics and education, which links to the National Strategy 20 Years.

1. The National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) is enshrined in the Royal Act of the Office of the National Economic and Social Development Council 2018. Article 14 of the Act states that the NESDC shall construct a plan that is relevant to and coincides with the National Strategy. Article 19 states that once the NESDC has received approval from the Cabinet on its draft plan, this draft plan shall be officially announced and enforced. All ministries and government agencies are bound to construct an annual operational plan for their organisation, and this shall be included in their annual budget report.

This led to the creation of the 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) 2017-2021 based on the mandate of the NESDC Act. It is specifically aimed at translating the policy objectives of the National Strategy into a national action plan and encompasses the following: [1].

  • Enhancing human resource development
  • Reducing social inequalities
  • Enhancing sustainable economic competition
  • Conserving and improving the environment for sustainable development
  • Enhancing national security
  • Effective reorganisation of the public sector, corruption prevention and building of a fair society
  • Enhancing infrastructure and logistics
  • Enhancing science, technology, research and innovation
  • Enhancing cities and special economic zones
  • International development cooperation

2. The National Education Plan 2017-2036 provides details on the strategies and goals for education in Thailand and is succinctly aligned with the National Strategy and the NESDP. The National Education Plan includes 6 strategies:

  1. Preservation of the country’s security through educational restructuring: The objective is to use education as one of the means to strengthen and secure the sovereignty of Thailand against traditional and non-traditional threats, in particular from social media and radical ideologies. The restructuring of the education system should aim to create not only technical knowledge, but also soft-knowledge and skills that would be suitable for the 21st Century.
  2. Strengthening of Thailand’s competitiveness through the development of human resources and research: The objective here is to develop and prepare the human resources of Thailand for the demands of the labour market and the skills required for Industry 4.0 and the 21st Century.
  3. Human resource development and promotion of life-long learning: The goal is for the current and future Thai workforce to possess the skills and competencies that match the skills needed for the 21st Century.
  4. Equal access to education: Increase the general public’s access to education and information.
  5. Formulation of a Green education: Instil awareness and social responsibility in students in relation to the environment.
  6. Improvement of educational management system: Improve the effectiveness of the management system in education.

It is worth mentioning that Thailand’s strategies, specifically the NESDP and the National Education Plan, adhere to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) particularly Goal 4: Quality Education, which emphasises improvement in educational quality.[2] In addition, as one of the members of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO), Thailand adheres to the pursuit of promoting Technical and Vocational Education and Training, a regional common development goal set as one of the SEAMEO 7 priority areas (2015-2035).

TVET legislation and strategy in Thailand, as demanded by the Constitution, will have to align and comply with the demands of the National Strategy and the blueprints stated above. The following section examines in more detail the laws and strategies regarding TVET in Thailand.

 

[1] National Economic and Social Development Board (2017). The Twelfth National Economic and Social Development Plan. Bangkok: National Economic and Social Development Board

 [2] https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15604Thailand_.pdf

 

Legislation

The relevant governmental bodies and agencies are allocated authority and mandates through the legislation. These can be divided into two main categories:  legislation concerning the regulation of a subject, in this case Education and TVET; and legislation related to the authority and mandate of government entities.

National Education Act and Vocational Education Act

The overarching legislation for education in Thailand is the National Education Act (1999 and amended in 2002). The Act covers the basic guidelines and objectives for the education system in Thailand, in which the government seeks to provide equal rights and opportunities to education for all Thai citizens for a duration of at least 12 years[1].  In addition, this National Education Act also mentions, albeit briefly, TVET in Thailand, but crucially allocates the authority for matters related to TVET as determined in the Vocational Education Act (2008). The Act oversees and governs matters related to TVET and fosters human resource development and economic growth in the country. In addition, the National Education Act gives authority and responsibility to the Ministry of Education to oversee the issues related to education in Thailand. The Vocational Education Act also gives authority to the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC) to oversee matters related to TVET in Thailand. The National Education Act is thus the overarching legislature and the Vocational Education Act is subordinate to it. That said, the Vocational Education Act retains autonomy in the details related to TVET in Thailand.

Ministry of Education and the Office of the Vocational Education Commission

With legislation differentiating between Education and TVET, the separation and determination of the responsibilities of the relevant government entities is required. The Ministry of Education Separation Act states that the Ministry of Education (MOE) shall be the primary authority with the mandate for overseeing and steering the entire education system in Thailand to align with the 20-year National Strategy and additional plans. When it comes to TVET, the Separation Act allocates the authority and mandate for overseeing matters related to TVET to the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC), with the proviso that the MOE’s operational strategy aligns with the National Strategy and relevant plans. This means the OVEC’s operational strategy must also be in line with the MOE’s operation strategy, the National Strategy and relevant plans. From a top-down perspective, the National Education Act and the MOE govern the entire education system in Thailand, but when it comes to TVET, the mandate is given over to the Vocational Education Act and the OVEC to execute the broader strategy.

[1] https://asean.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Thailand184.pdf page 8

Strategy

As stated in the previous section on the governing legislation and the authority given by the legislation to the MOE and OVEC, this section examines the strategy established by the MOE and OVEC and illustrates its alignment with the National Strategy and additional plans.

Under the Constitution of Thailand, all ministries and government agencies are bound to operate in compliance with the National Strategy and comply with additional plans, namely the 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021) and the National Education Strategy 2017-2036. The objectives of the MOE operational strategy are given below.  

The MOE operational strategy aims to develop an educational strategy that will enhance the quality of education in Thailand, develop the human resources and support the country’s sustainable development. The components of the MOE action plan and its connection to the National Strategy, the NESDP and the National Education Plan are:

  1. Development of educational curriculum and evaluation mechanisms to ensure that students have the necessary skills and knowledge for the 21st Century;
  1. Development of teachers and educational officers with the capabilities to effectively perform their functions in such a way that respond to the needs of the country; 
  1. Development of human resources in accordance with the requirements of the country by producing capable TVET teachers who will be able to train students effectively; 
  1. Expansion of access to education and life-long learning so that all students, including disadvantaged groups, enjoy a good quality of education.; 
  1. Development of digital systems for education in order to expand access to knowledge platforms for educational institutions; 
  1. Establishment of a mechanism that promotes stakeholder involvement thereby improving the agility of the management system in the education field.

As stated earlier, the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC) is the primary authority for matters related to TVET in Thailand. The OVEC operational strategy must comply with the objectives set forth by the MOE operational strategy, the National Strategy and relevant plans, although the methods for achieving such objectives are decided by the OVEC.

The OVEC’s objectives include:

  1. National Security through Vocational Education: Equip students with the values of a responsible citizen and strengthen stability for them from non-traditional threats. 
  1. Competitive advantage through TVET personnel development: Prepare the TVET students with the competences demanded by the industries, and enhance qualifications, research and innovation.
  1. Economic advancement by building the capacity of TVET personnel: Develop TVET personnel with competences relevant to Thailand 4.0, enhance training deliveries for TVET personnel and students, develop curricula and establish cooperation in developing TVET personnel capacities.
  1. Equal opportunity and access to vocational education: Ensure equal access to quality TVET education for all through adequate infrastructure and a data base system.
  1. Environmentally friendly TVET: Encourage environmental awareness as part of TVET education.
  1. Reforming and enhancing the management of Vocational Education: Develop the vocational management system and network, while developing a quality assurance system.

The figure below illustrates how the OVEC operational strategy, the MOE operational strategy, the National Education Plan and the NESD plan link back to the 20-year National Strategy (Please view the table below). The detailed projects and action plan of the OVEC and MOE are not included in this Country Profile as when preparing their annual budgets, each ministry and governmental entity is obliged to submit their annual action plan on activities for the next government budget year. The detail of activities planned to be executed by both MOE and OVEC will have major or minor changes from year to year, but the linkages to the strategy objective set out in the MOE and OVEC operational strategy and the linkages to the National Strategy 20 Years and additional plans will not differ. It can therefore be concluded that TVET in Thailand operates in accordance with the broader framework determined by the MOE and as dictated by the national objectives stated in the National Strategy, the NESD Plan and the National Education Plan.

Table: Linkages to the National Strategy 20 Years and additional plans

National Strategy 20 Years (2018-2037)

NESDP

National Education Plan

MOE Operational Strategy

OVEC Operational Strategy

 

 

 

Strategy on competitive advantage

  • Enhance human resources development
  • Enhance sustainable economic competition
  • Reduce social inequalities
  • Strengthen Thailand’s competitiveness through the development of human resources and research
  • Human resources development and promotion of life-long
    learning
  • Equal access to education
  • Development of educational curriculum and evaluation mechanisms
  • Development of teachers and educational officers with the needs of the country
  • Development of human resources in accordance with the requirements of the country
  • Expansion of access to education and life-long learning
  • Competitive advantage through TVET personnel development
  • Economic advancement by building the capacity of TVET personnel
  • Reforming and enhancing the management of vocational education
  • Equal opportunity and access to vocational education

 

Strategy on human development

  • Enhance human resources development
  • Enhance sustainable economic competition
  • Reduce social inequalities
  • Strengthen Thailand’s competitiveness through the development of human resources and research
  • Human resources development and promotion of life-long
    learning
  • Equal access to education
  • Development of educational curriculum and evaluation mechanisms
  • Development of teachers and educational officers with the needs of the country
  • Development of human resources in accordance with the requirements of the country
  • Expansion of access to education and life-long learning
  • Competitive advantage through TVET personnel development
  • Economic advancement by building the capacity of TVET personnel
  • Equal opportunity and access to vocational education

 

Strategy on equal opportunity and social equality

  • Enhance sustainable economic competition
  • Reduce social inequalities
  • Enhance infrastructure and logistic
  • Enhance science, technology research and innovation
  • Human resources development and promotion of life-long
    learning
  • Equal access to education
  • Improvement of educational management system
  • Expansion of access to education and life-long learning
  • Development of digital systems for education
  • Competitive advantage through TVET personnel development
  • Economic advancement by building the capacity of TVET personnel
  • Equal opportunity and access to vocational education

Strategy on civil servant reformation

  • Effective reorganisation of public sectors, corruption prevention and building a fair society
  • International development cooperation
  • Improvement of educational management system 
  • Establishment of a mechanism that promotes stakeholder involvements
  • Reforming and enhancing the management of vocational education
Governance

Governance

As stipulated in the 1999 National Education Act, the Ministry of Education (MOE) is the main agency responsible for promoting and overseeing the provision of education at all levels, including basic and higher education, and of all types, including formal, non-formal and informal education.  

From 2003-2019, the MOE’s administration and management system at the central level was operated by 5 main bodies: the Office of the Permanent Secretary (OPS), the Office of the Education Council (OEC), the Office of the Basic Education Commission (OBEC), the Office of Vocational Education (OVEC) and the Office of the Higher Education Commission (OHEC).

However, since May 2019, the Office of the Higher Education Commission has been merged with the Ministry of Science and Technology, in accordance with the 2019 Higher Education Act.  Consequently, the main bodies at the central level of the MOE and their responsibilities are as follows:

               1) The Office of the Permanent Secretary is responsible for coordinating administrative and budgetary affairs within the Ministry, setting forth the Ministry’s policy, guidelines and work plans, as well as supervising the provision of non-formal, informal and private education;

               2) The Office of the Education Council is responsible for formulating policies, plans and standards of national education, mobilising educational resources, evaluating educational provision, conducting research and developing educational laws;

               3) The Office of the Basic Education Commission oversees the provision of general education from pre-primary to upper secondary levels to ensure that all school-aged children have access to basic education; and

               4) The Office of the Vocational Education Commission administers the provision of technical and vocational education (TVET) from upper secondary level to post-secondary education whereby the nation’s labour market demands are incorporated into the matrix.

In addition, there are 4 government-supervised agencies, comprising the Teachers’ Council of Thailand, the Office of the Welfare Promotion Commission for Teachers and Educational Personnel, the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology, and the National Scout Organisation of Thailand; as well as 3 public organisations, namely the International Institute for Trade and Development, Mahidol Witthayanuson School, and the National Institute of Educational Testing Service. These agencies were established to supervise specific tasks mandated by the Ministry.

The educational administration and management system in regions, provinces, and educational service areas consists of 18 Regional Education Offices, 77 Provincial Education Offices, 183 Primary Educational Service Areas Offices and 42 Secondary Educational Service Areas Offices nationwide.

The MOE organisational chart is shown below

 

The Minister of Education is a political official appointed by the Prime Minister to oversee the entire organisation.  The Permanent Secretary is a non-political official working within the government entity as a civil servant. In the MOE, the Permanent Secretary oversees and monitors the operations of each office within the ministry to ensure that their operations and activities align with the broader framework of the MOE and the government, in this case the National Strategy and relevant plans. As indicated in the figure above, the Office of Permanent Secretary of the MOE is at the same level as other offices within the MOE, rather than in a higher position. Other offices within the MOE include the Office of the Education Council, the Office of Basic Education Commission, and the Office of the Vocational Education Commission. All have the authority to operate autonomously and function as the primary actor in the field they govern. The Office of Permanent Secretary does not have an overarching mandate to tell these offices how to implement and operate their annual activities. The Office of Permanent Secretary is authorised to monitor and ensure that the MOE operational strategy and other related governmental strategies’ objectives are achieved.  It can thus be seen that the structure of the MOE enables responsible offices to implement the frameworks set by the MOE and the government as they see appropriate. The responsibility for TVET is allocated to the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC).

The Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC) was established by the Ministries Act on August 19, 1941 and was known as the Department of Vocational Education. Between 1990-1996, the number of colleges increased to 93, made up of 60 colleges at the district level, 25 Polytechnics and 8 other colleges. All were tasked with enhancing professional education opportunities for local populations, as well as providing skilled workers and technicians to respond to the needs of the labour market and in line with economic and social development. When vocational education became a prominent programme, 20 vocational colleges were established, and the Department of Vocational Education was divided into 11 divisions. On July 7, 2003 the Department of Vocational Education was renamed the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC).[1]

This newly established office came under the MOE, with specific authority given by the Ministry of Education Separation Act, the National Education Act and the Vocational Education Act. All three Acts assign OVEC as the primary authority overseeing matters related to vocational education in Thailand. Furthermore, OVEC’s action plan and strategy is required to align with the MOE’s broader strategy and the National Strategy, along with other relevant plans. At the top of OVEC hierarchical order is a Secretary General, who is a civil servant appointee. 

Chart: The OVEC organisational Chart

 

Source: Office of the Vocational Education Commission (2017). Organization Chart. Retrieved November 9, 2017 from http://www.vec.go.th/en-us/aboutvec/organizationchart.aspx

The OVEC’s authority is defined in multiple laws and regulations, including the Ministry of Education Separation Act, which outlines the authority and mandates of the OVEC in overseeing TVET in Thailand. These mandates include the following.

Authority of the OVEC[2]

  1. To prepare proposals, policy development and standard of vocational courses at all levels;
  2. To perform and to coordinate with vocational and professional standards;
  3. To set rules and procedures for budgeting and resource support;
  4. To support the development of vocational teachers and staff;
  5. To further promote coordinated management at the public and private levels as well as set the rules for each form of joint venture in collaboration with other government agencies and enterprises;
  6. To monitor and to manage reporting on vocational education at both public and private levels;
  7. To organise, promote and coordinate information networks and communication technology used in vocational education and TVET training;
  8. To act as the secretary of the Vocational Education Commission;
  9. To perform other tasks as required by law according to the powers, duties and responsibilities of the Office of Vocational Education Commission or as assigned by the Minister or the cabinet.

[1] Office of the Vocational Education Commission (2017). History. Retrieved on November 9, 2017 http://www.vec.go.th/en-us/aboutvec/history.aspx retrieved on 9 November 2017.

[2] Office of the Vocational Education Commission (2017). Vision and Mission. Retrieved on November 9, 2017  http://www.vec.go.th/en-us/aboutvec/visionandmission.aspx

Financing

Multiple sources of funding contribute to the TVET system in Thailand, with the primary source being the annual government budget. The government budget is distributed to the different ministries according to their estimated budget. For TVET, the budget comes under the annual budget of the MOE and is allocated to the Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC)[1]

For 2021 fiscal year, the overall budget allocated to the MOE was approximately 129 billion Thai Baht (THB), of which 15 billion THB was allocated to the OVEC for the advancement of TVET according to government plans and objectives[2].

Apart from the financial support from the government, the TVET system also receives technical support from bilateral and international collaboration such as assistance from Germany, Japan, Denmark, UNICEF and UNESCO

[1] Royal Decree on the Ministry of Education Structuring Act (2003)

[2] Royal Decree on the annual government budget (2020): http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2563/A/015/T_0001.PDF

System

The separation of responsibility between government entities in education stated in the previous chapter will be displayed in this chapter to provide a complete image of Thailand’s national education system.  

Basic education in Thailand refers to six years of primary education (G1-G6), three years of lower secondary (G7-G9) and three years of upper secondary education (G10-G12). The 1999 National Education Act provides for compulsory education to be extended from six to nine years, covering six years of primary education and three years of lower secondary education (G1-G9). Those having completed the compulsory education are eligible to choose between two parallel tracks: general or academic track, and TVET track, as follows:       

  • An upper secondary education (in general track) lasting for three years, in three main majors: Science, Maths and Language.
  • An upper secondary education (in TVET track) lasting for three years, covering multiple subjects, for example, mechanics, commerce and accountancy, electronics, etc.

The Act also specifies that not less than 12 years of education shall be provided free of charge. In addition, an initiative to provide three years pre-primary up to the completion of upper secondary education free of charge was implemented in 2009. The Thai education system has provided 15-year free basic education ever since. This helps provide the tuition fees, uniforms, textbooks, learning materials, and extra-curricular activities free of charge, for pre-primary, primary and secondary students in public schools.

TVET is provided in three tiers: upper secondary level, leading to a certificate in vocational education; post-secondary level, leading to a diploma in vocational education; and tertiary vocational education, leading to a bachelor’s degree in TVET. These are detailed in the diagram below.

Diagram: Thailand Education System

 

Source: World TVET Database Thailand Scheme complied by UNESCO-UNEVOC and extracted from Choomnoon, Siripan (2011). Thailand. In Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region, S. Majumdar (Ed.). 219-235. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

In addition, students with the upper secondary education (in general track) will enrol for a four to six-year bachelor’s degree programme at a university or higher education institution (HEI). Students with the upper secondary education (in TVET track) are able to select one of the following paths (see diagram above):

  • Either continue with a two-year course to acquire the (diploma in vocational education) and then pursue a two-year bachelor’s degree programme to acquire a bachelor’s degree (Vocational Tertiary);
  • Or apply and enrol for a bachelor’s degree programme (Academic Tertiary Undergraduate).

TVET System

Students seeking to continue their education in a vocational education programme must hold a lower secondary certificate to be eligible to apply for a technical and vocational programme. The TVET system in Thailand is conducted through Formal TVET programmes, which offer students theoretical and practical knowledge in the field they pursue. The programmes are offered at the upper secondary level in vocational colleges and institutes, with a duration of three years, with potential internships before graduating. The types of colleges providing formal TVET in Thailand are classified as follows:

  • Technical colleges;
  • Vocational colleges;
  • Agricultural and technology colleges;
  • Commercial colleges;
  • Industrial and ship-building technology colleges;
  • Fishery colleges;
  • Administration and tourism colleges;
  • Polytechnic colleges;
  • Automotive industry colleges;
  • Golden Jubilee Royal goldsmith colleges;
  • Arts and crafts colleges.

In addition to Formal TVET programmes, there is a popular alternative, which was influenced by the successful German Dual Education systems and apprenticeships programmes. The Dual educational programmes in Thailand are organised by vocational institutions, under the OVEC in collaboration with companies, state enterprises or government agencies. The programme duration is three years with practical training at companies for students comprising more than half of the programme. This cooperation among different stakeholders requires an integrated curriculum with the private sector, not just for dual vocational education programmes, but also for formal TVET programmes. The TVET curricula requirements are set by OVEC while also integrating and linking with the needs of the industry

A non-formal and informal TVET system exists in the form of traditional non-formal and informal education. This integrates subjects related to capacity building, life skills, career development, basic education and occupational skills with a non-formal and informal curriculum rather than a TVET curriculum tailored for non-formal and informal education. It is worth bearing in mind that the foundation of non-formal and informal education in Thailand is heavily influenced by adult education. The Office of Non-Formal and Informal Education (ONFE) is the primary authority overseeing this type of education in Thailand. According to the Ministry of Education Separation Act, the ONFE comes under the Permanent Secretary’s Office of the MOE. Hence, the integration of skills development, capacity building and occupational skills into the non-formal and informal education in Thailand is the closest we get to a non-formal and informal TVET system.

National Qualifications Framework

The Thai National Qualification Framework (NQF) is driven by the NQF Committee, with the Office of the Education Council (OEC) acting as the secretariat of the NQF Committee. The OEC serves as the central authority in coordinating with all relevant agencies involved in the referencing process between the Thai NQF and the AQRF.  Furthermore, the AQRF referencing process also involves the following agencies responsible for sub-sector qualifications:

  • Office of the Basic Education Commission (OBEC)
  • Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC)
  • Office of the Permanent Secretary (OPS), Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation (MHESI)
  • Department of Skill Development (DSD), Ministry of Labour
  • Thailand Professional Qualification Institute (Public Organization) (TPQI)

The diagram below shows the linkages between the different levels of the AQRF and the NQF. In order to differentiate each level, they are described as “learning outcomes consisting of knowledge, skills, and application and responsibility”.

Diagram: Different levels of AQRF and NQF

 The table below describes the linkages between the NQF with the Thai Professional Qualification and Thai National Skills Standards, while also identifying which level of the NQF would be equivalent to the different educational qualification in Thailand.

Table: Linkages between the NQF with the Thai Professional Qualification and Thai National Skills Standards

Source: ASEAN (2019 – 2020) “AQRF Referencing Report of Thailand” page 33 and 50

The following tables provide information on vocational education programmes with the vocational education qualification.

Table: Secondary vocational education programme

Programme

Duration

Qualification

Upper secondary vocational programme

3 years

Certificate in Vocational Education

Dual system and apprenticeship

3 years

Certificate in Vocational Education

Short courses accumulation

3-5 years

Certificate in Vocational Education: Credit Accumulation System

 

Table: Post-secondary vocational education programme

Programme

Duration

Qualification

TVET Colleges

2 years

Diploma in Vocational Education

Undergraduate

2 years (after Diploma in Vocational Education)

Bachelor’s Degree

Source: World Bank (2015). Thailand - National Qualifications Framework summary. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/553231508753630151/Thailand-National-Qualifications-Framework-summary

The Thai NQF was designed to line up with the AQRF, though with some adjustments to align with the demands required by the Thai domestic system have been made.

Table: A comparison between the AQRF and the Thai NQF is given below[1]

Learning Outcomes

AQRF

Thailand NQF

Level 1

Knowledge

§  Basic and general

§  Involve simple, straightforward and routine actions

§  Basic, general, about occupation

§  Communicate with the world of work

Skills

§  Basic occupation skills

§  Skills in communication, life skills, and skills in routine operation without complexity

Application and responsibility

§  Involve structured routine processes

§  Involve close levels of support and supervision

§  Ability in routine operation according to the required steps

§  Ability to operate under close supervision

Level 2

Knowledge

§  General and factual

§  Involves use of standard actions

§  ICT communication, general and factual knowledge of the field

Skills

§  Skills in operation according to the required steps and standards

§  Thinking skills, life skills and communication skills with initiative

Application and responsibility

§  Involves structured processes

§  Involves supervision and some discretion in judgement for resolving familiar issues

§  Ability in operation according to principles and standards

§  Ability in operation, looking after and making basic decisions and problem solving

Level 3

Knowledge

§  Includes general principles and some conceptual aspects

§  Involves selecting and applying basic methods, tools, materials and information

§  Principles of specialised fields and basic analysis

Skills

§  Skills in selection and application of basic tools and materials

§  Communicative ICT and skills related to safety issues

Application and responsibility

§  Stable in some respects, but subject to change

§  Involves general guidance and requires judgment and planning to independently resolve some issues

§  Ability to operate as planned and adjust oneself without complex changes

§  Ability to independently provide the basic advice needed for decision making and planning for problem solving in some issues

§  Application of knowledge skills in the field, ICT, communication in problem-solving, and working in a new context including responsibility for oneself and others

Level 4

Knowledge

§  Technical and theoretical with general coverage of an occupation field

§  Involves adaption processes

§  Theoretical and technical, covering an occupation field. English and ICT related to work

Skills

§  Skills in adapting a suitable operation process and related to safety issues

Application and Responsibility

§  Generally predictable, but subject to change

§  Involves broad guidance requiring some self-direction and coordination to resolve unfamiliar issues

§  Ability to operate as planned and adjust to changes

§  Ability in problem solving by oneself and coordinate for problem solving on unfamiliar issues

Level 5

Knowledge

§  Detailed technical and theoretical knowledge of a general field

§  Involves analytical thinking

§  Theoretical and in-depth technical ability in an occupation field

Skills

§  Skills in thinking, analysing and problem solving

§  Skills in planning, managing and evaluating operations

Application and responsibility

§  Often subject to change

§  Involves independent evaluation of activities to resolve complex and sometimes abstract issues

§  Ability in operation under changing situations at all times

§  Ability to evaluate operation by oneself for complex problem solving and abstract issues

Level 6

Knowledge

§  Specialised technical and theoretical skills in a specific field

§  Involves critical and analytical thinking

§  Theory and detailed specific occupation field

Skills

§  Skills in thinking, analysing, reviewing and comparing problems

Application and responsibility

§  Complex and changing

§  Requires initiative and adaptability, as well as strategies to improve activities and to solve complex and abstract issues

§  Complex problem solving and changing

§  Initiate and improve, strategic complex planning, abstract problem solving and management in the filed

Level 7

Knowledge

§  At the forefront of a field and showing mastery of a body of knowledge

§  Involves critical and independent thinking as the basis for research to extend or redefine knowledge or practice

§  In-depth, at the forefront of the field

Skills

§  Skills in thinking, analysing, initiating research, expanding knowledge, practice and academic English usage

Application and responsibility

§  Complex, unpredictable, involves the development and testing of innovative solutions to resolve issues

§  Requires expert judgement and significant responsibility for professional knowledge, practice and management

§  Solve complex and unpredictable problems, develop and try out new methods, search for innovative solutions

§  Provide judgement and be responsible as an expert with knowledge of operations and management

§  Expert with theoretical and practical knowledge and management

Level 8

Knowledge

§  At the most advanced and specialised level, at the front of a field

§  Involves independent and original thinking and research, resulting in the creation of new knowledge or practice

§  The most advanced and highest specialised level

Skills

§  Initiate research, creating knowledge or practice

§  Use English in an academic presentation

§  Conduct research, published and accepted internationally

Application and responsibility

§  Highly specialised and complex, involving the development and testing of new theories and solutions to resolve complex and abstract issues

§  Requires authoritative and expert judgement in the management of research in organisation and significant responsibility in extending professional knowledge and the practice and creation of new ideas and processes

§  Have expertise in complex problem solving, develop and test new theories or search for new solutions to complex and abstract issues

§  Authorised to provide knowledge in the field for management research and responsible for enhancing knowledge and practices, creating new ideas and processes in the field

[1] ASEAN (2016). ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework. Accessed from http://asean.org/asean-economic-community/sectoral-bodies-under-the-purview-of-aem/services/asean-qualifications-reference-framework/ and ASEAN (2019 – 2020) “AQRF Referencing Report of Thailand”, accessed from https://asean.org/storage/2017/03/TH_final-ref.-report-clean.docx.pdf

  • Population

    68,297,546 (2017)c

  • Sex Ratio

    0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)b

  • HDI

    0.740 (2015)c

  • GDP (Total)

    $455.4 billion (2017 est.)b

  • GDP (Per Capita)

    $17,900 (2017 est.)b

  • Industry/Sectors (GDP Contribution)

    Agriculture: 8.2%
    Industry: 36.2%
    Services: 55.6% (2017)b

  • Poverty Rate

    7.2% (2015 est.)b


EDUCATION

  • Education Index

    0.641 (2015)c

  • Adult Literacy Rate (% Ages 15 and Older)

    96.7% (2015)c

  • Expected Years of Schooling

    13.6 (2015)c

  • Mean Years of Schooling (Adults)

    7.9 (2015)c

  • School Dropout Rate

    6.5% (2013)c


Employment

  • Unemployment Rate (Total)

    1.1% (2015)c

  • Unemployment Rate (Youth -15 -24 Old)

    5.3% (2015)b

  • Composition of Workforce

    Agriculture: 31.8%
    Industry: 16.7%
    Services: 51.5% (2015 est.)b

  • a Population Pyramid
    b CIA World Factbook
    c UNDP HDR

    For official government data on key indicators, please refer to data released by official government source(s).

“SEAMEO VOCTECH in collaboration with UNESCO-UNEVOC has used its best endeavours to ensure that material contained in this publication, provided through SEA-VET.NET, is useful, informative and obtained from reliable sources. However, it gives no warranty and accepts no responsibility for the accuracy, reliability, legality or completeness of information and reserves the right to make changes without notice at any time in its absolute discretion.”

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