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Philippines

This profile is represented by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). SEAVET.NET shall supplement more information on other TVET line Ministries, private TVET institutions and relevant agencies in the course of time. Please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to share relevant information to help us further develop the profile.

Key Indicators


  • Capital

    Manila

  • Main Industries/Sectors

    Manufacturing; Tourism; BPO


Economy

TVET

Overview

Through the Philippine Congress’ act of enactment of the Joint Resolution No. 2 in 1990 - the Congressional Commission for Education (EDCOM) was created. Its main objective was to review and assess the education and manpower training system of the nation. EDCOM’s assessments resulted in numerous recommendations; in particular it found the need for the establishment of another government agency that would function to develop and oversee matters of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in the country.

Republic Act No. 7796, also known as the “Technical Educational and Skills Development Act of 1994” was signed in 1994. This resulted in the establishment of Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) (Filipino: Pangasiwaan sa Edukasyong Teknikal at Pagpapaunlad ng Kasanayan) on August 25, 1994.

Serving at the forefront of Philippines’ TVET, the TESDA is responsible for both managing, as well as supervising the Philippines’ Technical Education and Skills Development (TESD). The underlying ethos of TESDA is to be the ‘transformational leader in the technical education and skills development of the Filipino workforce’. In this context, TESDA sets direction, promulgates relevant standards, and implements programs geared towards a quality-assured and inclusive technical education and skills development and certification system.

Along with the establishment of the TESDA, EDCOM also recommended the integration of these particular offices: the National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC) of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), the Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education (BTVE) of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and the Apprenticeship Program of the Bureau of Local Employment of DOLE.

The initiative to combine the above-mentioned offices was the commission’s attempt to address private and public sector’s issues of bureaucratic oversight on skills development activities, whilst also creating a single agency whose sole purpose took into account bettering the nation’s TVET system.

A representation of the commission’s efforts can be seen from the comprehensive development plan for middle-level manpower, which is based on the National Technical Education and Skills Development – as it includes a reformed industry-based training program that provides apprenticeship, dual training system and other similar schemes.

Mission

The overarching short term and long term objective of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in the Philippines is to ensure national development through accelerated human capital development by ensuring lifelong learning opportunities for all. The National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan (NTESDP) 2018-2022,1 one of the key guiding documents in the TVET sector, envisions a “Vibrant Quality TVET for Decent Work and Sustainable Inclusive Growth.”

The NTESDP aims to mobilise, galvanise and strengthen the TVET Sector in order to attain two strategic thrusts/strategic directions: (1) Global Competitiveness and Workforce Readiness and (2) Social Equity for Workforce Inclusion and Poverty Reduction.

Specifically, the objectives stated in the NTESDP 2018-2022 are to:

  1. Create a conducive and enabling environment for the development and quality service delivery of the TVET sector in order to produce work-ready, globally competitive, green economy workers imbued with 21st century skills;
  2. Prepare the Philippine workforce for the challenges posed by the Fourth Industrial Revolution as it ushers in new jobs not yet in the marketplace that make existing ones obsolete;
  3. Assure industries with high economic and employment growth potentials are provided the required quantity of quality workforce;
  4. Directly and more vigorously address workforce needs of the basic sectors in order to achieve greater social equity and economic inclusion; and
  5. Instil values and integrity in the conduct and delivery of TVET in the whole sector and to progressively align their programs and course offerings with global standards, especially in critical or priority sectors of the Philippine economy.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) include: Increased enrolment in TVET, No. of assessed individuals, Increased certification rate, No. of TVET graduates granted with scholarships, and employment rate.

All KPIs are aligned with regional development goals.

Legislation

Numerous TVET reforms and policies are in place; the key ones are:

1. BP 232 – Education Act (1982)2

The Education Act is the framework for the establishment of an integrated system of education. The Act specifies the aims of the educational system as follows: (1) Provide general education that assists individuals in the unique ecology of their own society; (2) Train the economy’s manpower in the middle-level skills required for the economy’s development; (3) Develop professions that will produce capable Philippines 5 people who can take a lead in the advancement of knowledge and improve the quality of human life, and; (4) Respond effectively to the changing needs and conditions of the economy through educational planning and the evaluation system.

2. The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (1987)3

The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines mandates the right of a citizen to receive compulsory primary education and also stipulates free provision of education. Article XIV, Section 2 (2) spells out the free provision of primary and secondary education. It states: “The State shall establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age.”

3. RA 6655 – Public Secondary Education Act (1988)4

This Act prescribes that attendance at public junior high schools in the Philippines should be free.  Schools may, however, seek to collect voluntary contributions from students and their parents.

4. RA 7722 – The Higher Education Act (1994)5

Attached administratively to the Office of the President of the Philippines, the creation of Commission of Higher Education (CHED) was part of a broad agenda of reforms on the economy’s education system outlined by the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) in 1992. Part of this reform was the trifocalization of the education sector.

5. RA 7796 – The TESDA Act of 19946

This law created the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). TESDA is mandated to provide relevant, accessible, high quality and efficient technical vocational education and training opportunities for the Filipinos to meet the skills requirements for economic and social development.

6. RA 8292 – The Higher Education Modernization Act (1997)7

The law provides for the uniform composition and powers of the Governing Boards of State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) nationwide, as well as the manner of appointment and term of office of the president of chartered state higher education institutions. Furthermore, RA 8292 laid down the powers and duties of the SUC Governing Board, the highest policy making body in the institution.

7. RA 10533 – The Enhanced Basic Education Act (2013)8

This law is popularly known in the Philippines as the K to 12 Program. The Program covers kindergarten and twelve years of basic education – six years of primary schooling, four years of junior high school and two years of senior high school. By adding two years to the current educational system, K to 12 Program aims to provide mastery of skills for lifelong learners and prepare them for career opportunities. The program also contextualizes lessons and learning materials to students, as concepts will be explained in the context of the local culture and with the use of the mother tongue in the locality. The enhanced basic education curriculum also prepares graduates of the K to 12 Program to acquire middle-level skills that will allow them more opportunities even in the global market.

8. RA 10647 – The Ladderized Education Act (2014)9

The law institutionalizes a Ladderized Education Program (LEP) which would formalize a system of accreditation and interface between and among the economy’s technical vocational institutions and higher educational institutions. The law allows TVET graduates to proceed to college to pursue a degree without having to take the course program all over. Units shall be credited from a technical or vocational course to a college degree program.

9. RA 10650 – The Open Distance Learning Act (2014)10

The law seeks to expand and further democratize access to quality tertiary education through the promotion and application of open learning as a philosophy of access to educational services. The new law also intends to implement distance education as an appropriate, efficient and effective system of delivering quality higher and technical educational services in the economy.

10. RA 10687 – The Unified Student Financial Assistance System for Tertiary Education (UniFAST) Act (2015)11

The law is designed to unify all modalities of publicly-funded Student Financial Assistance Programs (StuFAPs)—Scholarships, Grants-in-Aid and Student Loans—for Tertiary Education. The UniFAST Act rationalizes the allocation, utilization and client-targeting of government resources and improves access to quality higher and technical education for the beneficiaries. It shall also serve as the ultimate domestic human resource development mechanism and strategy that will direct beneficiaries to priority courses needed for economic growth and development.

11. RA 10771 – Philippine Green Jobs Act (2016)12

The law promotes the creation of “green jobs”, or employment that contributes to preserving or restoring the quality of the environment, be it in the agriculture, industry or services sector. The law also mandates the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to coordinate with other government agencies in formulating a National Green Jobs Human Resource Development Plan on the development, enhancement and utilization of the labor force, both in the private and public sectors.

12. RA 10931 – The Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act (2016)13

The law provides for free tuition and other school fees in state universities and colleges, local universities and colleges and state-run technical-vocational institutions. It also establishes the Tertiary Education Subsidy and Student Loan Program, and strengthens the Unified Student Financial Assistance System for tertiary education.

13. RA 10968 – The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) Act (2017)14

The law establishes the PQF which shall describe the levels of educational qualifications and sets the standards for qualification outcomes. The PQF is a quality assured national system for the development, recognition and award of qualifications based on standards of knowledge, skills and values acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers of the country.

14. RA 10970 – National Tech-Voc Day Act (2018)15

The law declares the twenty-fifth day of August of every year as the National Tech-Voc Day.

Furthermore, the Central Office provides the policy directions and Implementing Guidelines to serve as guides in the delivery of TVET programs and services at the regional and provincial levels. Furthermore, TESDA has established and applies a Quality Management System for its Program Registration, Assessment and Certification, and Development of Training Regulations (TRs) and Competency Assessment Tools (CATs).16

Several programs are in place to target specific groups, including: the poor and the marginalized, PWDs, IPs, women (esp. victims of abuse), returning OFWs, farmers/fisherfolk, the unemployed, underemployed, citizens in conflict-afflicted areas, inmates.17

Strategy

National TVET policy is implemented through the TESDA. In its formulation and implementation of the National Strategy for TVET in the Philippines, TESDA adheres to the Quality-Assured Philippine TESD System Framework which has Industry Consultation as key component. It is based on the three pillars of the TVET Qualification and Certification; Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS); and the Philippine TVET Quality Awards. Within the framework of the Philippine Qualifications Framework are five levels of qualifying and certifying the Filipino workers under the Technical Education and Skills Development sector, namely: NC-I, NC-II, NC-III, NC-IV and Diploma.  The TVET System under TESDA is competency-based, assessment driven and occupation-focused. It starts with the industry definition of competency standards and ends with the industry utilizing TVET system outputs that are able to demonstrate the competence desired in the workplace.

Adherence to the Quality Assured Philippine TESD Framework directs the agency towards the implementation of quality TVET programs. This led the development of TVET Qualifications that are industry-driven, which provide TVET graduates more employment opportunities. It also ensures that the formulated TVET policies are responsive to the current issues and challenges; and guarantee the implementation of quality TVET programs. 

Stakeholders include sectors in government, employer/industry, labor, education and training sector. These sectors are involved in policy setting, program development, implementation and even monitoring of TVET programs.

In line with the Philippine Development Plan, targets are focused on improving the quality of labor supply, specifically increasing income-earning ability, reducing youth unemployment, elevating labor participation rate of women, and improving underemployment. Strategies center on employment facilitation, skills enhancement, school-to-work transition and other labor policies enhancing income-earning abilities. Indicators include:

  1. Increased participation rate in TVET of youths and adults by sex, age group, type of clients, delivery mode;
  2. Increased proportion of certified TVET graduates by industry/sector;
  3. Increased proportion of certified TVET graduates by sex;
  4. Increased certificate rate of TVET graduates;
  5. Increased proportion of poor, indigenous people and PWD beneficiaries of student financial assistance programs;
  6. Increased percentage of TVET graduates with ICT skills, by type of skill;
  7. Increased percentage of migrated TVET registered programs by sector/industry;
  8. Increased percentage of registered programs in higher level qualifications; and
  9. Increased percentage of institutions recognized under APACC.
Governance

In the Philippines the authority responsible for TVET at State level is the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). All management and supervision of TVET is lodged with it. Moreover, the adoption of the Quality-Assured TVET System and implementation of the Competency-based TVET system are some of the major decisions taken by the agency.18

TESDA was established by virtue of Republic Act No. 7796 or the TESDA Act of 1994 On August 25, 1994. TESDA is a merger of the former National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC) in-charge of the informal/nonformal TVET delivery; the Bureau of Technical Vocational Education (BTVE) of the former Department of Education, Culture and Sports (BTVE-DECS) in-charge of formal TVET; and the Apprenticeship Division of the Department of Labor and Employment that implements the Apprenticeship program.

TESDA is mandated by law to provide relevant, accessible, high quality and efficient technical education and skills development in support of the development of high quality Filipino middle-level manpower responsive to and in accordance with Philippine development goals and priorities. (Sec. 2 R.A. 7796).

TESDA is composed of both the Board and the Secretariat. Together, they constitute TESDA as an authority. The TESDA Board is the highest policy-making body, and also represents the public-private partnership that works together for the benefit of its constituents. Its composition includes the key stakeholders of the whole TVET sector.

The TESDA Board is responsible for the promulgation of continuing, coordinated and fully integrated technical education and skills development policies, plans and programs. The Board now has twenty (22) members. 

Majority (14) comes from the private sector: six (6) from employers and industry, six (6) from labor and two (2) from private technical vocational institutions. Eight (8) government departments represent areas related to technical education and skills development, namely, Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Department of Education (DepEd), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The TESDA Board is being chaired by the Secretary of the DOLE with the Secretaries of DTI and CHED as Co-Chairs.

The TESDA Secretariat is the development and implementing arm of the Authority. It is headed by the Director General (with a Cabinet rank) – led by Sec. Guiling A. Mamondiong since 2016 – who exercises general supervision and control over TESDA’s technical and administrative personnel.

Financing

TVET is being funded through various sources, such as20:

  1. National Government through the Annual General Appropriations Act (GAA);
  2. Industry/Employers;
  3. Local government units;
  4. Student fees;
  5. Contributions/ Donations from ILO, ADB, World Bank; etc.

The GAA sets the general parameters on how funds will be allocated. It defines programs and services for which the funds can be utilized. The utilization of contributions/ donations are usually defined by the respective donors.

System

National Education System21

Philippine’s national education system is comprised of the ‘K to 12 Program’, whereby the program covers 13 years of basic education with the following key stages (fig. 1):

  • Kindergarten to Grade 3
  • Grades 4 to 6
  • Grades 7 to 10 (Junior High School)
  • Grades 11 and 12 (Senior High School)
Figure 1: The Philippine Education System21
Figure 1: The Philippine Education System21

The Philippines has a unique trifocalized management of education system consisting of basic education, technical-vocational education and training, and higher education.

Three key agencies are involved in policy making, administration and management of education and training in the country: The Department of Education (DepEd) for basic education; the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) for TVET and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) for higher education.

With the implementation of the K to 12 program, basic education is now composed of six (6) grades in addition to the mandatory Kindergarten program in the elementary. The secondary level is composed of four (4) years Junior High School and two (2) years Senior High School. The third level is the tertiary education consisting of post-secondary and higher education. Higher Education is divided into baccalaureate, masters and doctorate levels in various programs or disciplines.

TVET System

One needs to be at least a senior high school graduate to enrol in a technical/vocational program.

Formal TVET System22

Figure 2: The TESDA-TVET Delivery Network [Source: TESDA]
Figure 2: The TESDA-TVET Delivery Network [Source: TESDA]

The TESDA oversees 4,540 public and private TVET schools and training centres, including its own 125 agri-fishery, trade and specialised training institutions. Of the total number of TVET institutions in the country, 10% are public while 90% are private. As of 2012, there were 777 enterprises providing apprenticeship and learnership programs. Figure 2 illustrates the TVET delivery network of TESDA.

The TVET system is financed through public and private funds; for instance between 2006 – 2010 46.5 % of TVET funding originated from public and 53.5 % from private sources.

Public TVET programs are funded through the following agencies:

  • Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which funds a network of TESDA Technology Institutions;
  • Local Government Units (LGU), which fund short-courses in TVET;
  • Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG);
  • Department of Agriculture (DA); and
  • Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD);

Funding for private TVET initiatives are derived from the following sources:

  • Fees paid by trainees for their TVET course;
  • Companies which fund apprenticeships, training programs and offer allowances to trainees; and
  • NGOs which run training courses and provide funding for training institutions.

The specific objectives of TVET policy are to:

  • Assure guidance and counselling, planning, coordination, monitoring and evaluation of TVET activities;
  • Provide theoretical and practical trainings in all sectors matching with the needs of enterprises and international standards;
  • Satisfy quantitative and qualitative needs of priority sectors by training required manpower for the relevant qualification areas;
  • Provide the graduates with required skills for profession i.e. ensure their employability and develop their ability to learn with autonomy during their professional life without any forms of discrimination and prepare them to self-employment; and
  • Develop work values and attitudes of individuals towards professionalism expressed in quality, efficiency, creativity, adaptability, commitment, responsibility, and accountability, the spirit of service and genuine love of well done work.

There are 22 sectors being catered by TVET programs:

  1. Agriculture and Fishery
  2. Automotive and Land Transportation
  3. Construction
  4. Decorative Crafts
  5. Electronics
  6. Footwear & Leathergoods
  7. Furniture and Fixtures
  8. Garments
  9. Human Health / Health Care
  10. Heating, Ventilation, Airconditioning and Refrigeration
  11. Information and Communication Technology
  12. Logistics
  13. Maritime
  14. Metals and Engineering
  15. Processed Food & Beverages
  16. Pyrotechnics
  17. Social, Community Development and Other Services
  18. Tourism (Hotel and Restaurant)
  19. Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
  20. Utilities
  21. Visual Arts
  22. Wholesale and Retail Trading

All programs with Training Regulations are provided with competency assessment tools specifically designed to measure the effectiveness of training delivery.

Non-formal & Informal TVET System22

Along with the formal school-based TVET, there are three other delivery modes: centre-based, community- based and enterprise-based:

  • Centre-based programs are delivered by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) on the regional and provincial level. There are 15 regional and 45 provincial training centres.
  • Community-based training programs address specifically the needs for skills in the community to facilitate self-employment. They target poor and marginal groups who cannot access formal education because of their low skills and limited financial resources. These programs support trainees in developing livelihood enterprise plans that are implemented directly after training. These programs are conducted in coordination between the Local Government Units (LGUs) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) engaged in skill development for the poor and marginalised groups.
  • Enterprise-Based Programs are training program being implemented within companies/firms. These programs can be any of the following:
    1. Apprenticeship Program is a training and employment program involving a contract between an apprentice and an employer on an approved apprenticeship-based occupation. Generally, it aims to provide a mechanism that will ensure availability of qualified skilled workers based on industry requirements. The period of apprenticeship covers a minimum of four months and a maximum of six months. Only companies with approved and registered apprenticeship programs under TESDA can be hire apprentices.
      • Objectives
        1. To help meet the demand of the economy for trained manpower;
        2. To establish a national apprenticeship program through the participation of employers, workers and government and non-government agencies; and
        3. To establish apprenticeship standards for the protection of apprentices.
    2. Learnership Program is a practical training on-the-job for approved learnable occupations, for a period not exceeding three months. Only companies with TESDA approved and registered learnership programs can hire learners.
    3. Dual Training System is an instructional mode of delivery for technology-based education and training in which learning takes place alternately in two venues: the school or training center and the company. One of the strategic approaches on this program is the conversion of selected industry practices/ programs registered under the apprenticeship program into DTS modality. The overarching objective is to strengthen manpower education and training in the Philippines by institutionalizing the DTS as an instructional delivery system of TVET.
National Qualifications Framework

The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF)

Figure 3 shows the 8-level Philippine Qualifications Framework. TVET consists of 5-levels covering NC I to NC V-Diploma. Higher education shall consist of three levels: baccalaureate, post-baccalaureate and doctoral and post-doctoral degrees.

Figure 3: The Philippine Qualifications Framework [Source: TESDA]
Figure 3: The Philippine Qualifications Framework [Source: TESDA]

RA 10968 – The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) Act (2017)

The law establishes the PQF which shall describe the levels of educational qualifications and sets the standards for qualification outcomes. The PQF is a quality assured national system for the development, recognition and award of qualifications based on standards of knowledge, skills and values acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers of the country.

The PQF-National Coordinating Committee (NCC) Technical Working Group (TWG) is composed of the following:23

  1. Qualifications Register (Led by TESDA)
  2. Information and Guidelines (Led by DepEd)
  3. Quality Assurance (Led by CHED)
  4. Pathways and Equivalencies (Led by CHED)
  5. International Alignment (Led by PRC)

The figure shows the 8-level Philippine Qualifications Framework. TVET consists of 5-levels covering NC I to NC V-Diploma. Higher education shall consist of three levels: baccalaureate, post-baccalaureate and doctoral and post doctoral degrees.

The ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF)24

The AQRF is a common referencing framework or a translation device that enables comparison of qualifications across ASEAN Member States (AMS). It addresses education and training sectors that incorporates informal, non-formal and formal learning and promotes lifelong learning and provides a common spine of levels to which all National Qualifications Framework (NQF) relate. The AQRF broadens the understanding of the national qualifications systems of AMS for people from other ASEAN countries and from outside the ASEAN region.

The Referencing process aims to:

  1. Describe a common structure for linking NQFs to the AQRF
  2. Ensure that the linking process undertaken is robust and transparent
  3. Provide a common reporting structure for the referencing reports
Quality Assurance & Standards

TESDA is the sole accreditation and certification body for TVET.

  1. Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS)25

The Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System is the quality assurance mechanism for:

  1. The mandatory registration with TESDA of technical-vocational programs (including regular compliance audits); and
  2. The voluntary accreditation of TVET programs or institution by an accrediting body

Registration of the TVET program signifies compliance with the minimum requirements stipulated in the training regulations set by TESDA.

  1. Philippine TVET Competency Assessment and Certification System (PTCACS)26

The PTCACS determines whether the graduate or worker can perform to the standards expected in the workplace based on the defined competency standards. Certification is provided to those who meet the competency standards. This ensures the productivity, quality and global competitiveness of the middle-level workers.

Graduates

Top 10 courses based on 2016 records of TESDA28 (Table 1):

Table 1: Top 10 Courses and Corresponding Number of Enrolees (2016)

Course

Number Of Enrolees

1.       Food and Beverage Services NC II

61,383

2.       Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) NC II

55,823

3.       Cookery NC II

55,300

4.       Bread And Pastry Production NC II

54,402

5.       Housekeeping NC II

47,223

6.       Electrical Installation And Maintenance NC II

38,806

7.       Computer Systems Servicing NC II

38,542

8.       Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) NC I

29,504

9.       Household Services NC II

22,933

10.   Bookkeeping NC III

24,954

TESDA graduates do not remain idle after training, but easily join the workforce either in the country or abroad.  Based on the 2013 Impact Evaluation Survey (IES),29 employment rate of graduates was at 65.3 percent, the highest in the history of the agency. Further, graduates were able to find employment within 6 months to a year after finishing their course.

TVET graduates score high on employer satisfaction survey as of July 12, 2012. The survey, conducted in more than 5,000 establishments, revealed that a high percentage of the establishment (86.1%) said that they are either “very satisfied” (43.3%) or “somewhat satisfied” (42.8%) with the work and performance of the graduates.27

When asked if they will continue to hire technical vocational graduates, a big majority (86.9%) responded positively.

A total of 5,451 public and private establishments that employed TVET graduates in the last three years – from 2009 to 2011 – were polled for the ESS.

Personnel (Teachers)

Composition of Personnel30

Table 2 shows the total number of listed trainers for the period 2013-2017 in each region.

Table 2: Number of Listed Trainers (2013-2017) Head Count (As of March 2018)

REGION

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

TOTAL

CAR

31

38

96

197

32

394

I

60

189

293

374

309

1,225

II

59

104

233

338

165

899

III

287

408

298

509

326

1,828

IV-A

137

362

642

662

427

2,230

IV-B

18

57

196

158

185

614

NCR

56

256

513

943

971

2,739

V

123

176

362

465

225

1,351

VI

16

150

197

416

218

997

VII

71

173

320

247

116

927

VIII

86

196

400

0

252

934

IX

100

110

219

280

117

826

X

97

174

0

531

181

983

XI

222

266

663

293

109

1,553

XII

75

152

194

572

308

1,301

ARMM

0

5

97

100

172

374

CARAGA

30

82

107

150

55

424

TOTAL

1,468

2,898

4,830

6,235

4,168

19,599

Composition of Teaching Workforce30

Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 show the total number of male and female trainers in each region for the years 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 respectively.

Table 3: Number of Male and Female Trainers (2013)

REGION

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL (Male & Female)

% Male

% Female

% Total

CAR

13

18

31

42%

58%

100%

I

34

26

60

57%

43%

100%

II

24

35

59

41%

59%

100%

III

155

132

287

54%

46%

100%

IV-A

82

55

137

60%

40%

100%

IV-B

8

10

18

44%

56%

100%

NCR

28

28

56

50%

50%

100%

V

55

68

123

45%

55%

100%

VI

6

10

16

38%

63%

100%

VII

32

39

71

45%

55%

100%

VIII

41

45

86

48%

52%

100%

IX

45

55

100

45%

55%

100%

X

49

48

97

51%

49%

100%

XI

119

103

222

54%

46%

100%

XII

33

42

75

44%

56%

100%

ARMM

0

0

0

0%

0%

0%

CARAGA

11

19

30

37%

63%

100%

TOTAL

735

733

1,468

44%

50%

94%

 

Table 4: Number of Male and Female Trainers (2014)

REGION

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL (Male & Female)

% Male

% Female

% Total

CAR

17

21

38

45%

55%

100%

I

94

95

189

50%

50%

100%

II

58

46

104

56%

44%

100%

III

203

205

408

50%

50%

100%

IV-A

221

141

362

61%

39%

100%

IV-B

31

26

57

54%

46%

100%

NCR

123

133

256

48%

52%

100%

V

84

92

176

48%

52%

100%

VI

73

77

150

49%

51%

100%

VII

95

78

173

55%

45%

100%

VIII

97

99

196

49%

51%

100%

IX

60

50

110

55%

45%

100%

X

76

98

174

44%

56%

100%

XI

142

124

266

53%

47%

100%

XII

89

63

152

59%

41%

100%

ARMM

4

1

5

80%

20%

100%

CARAGA

36

46

82

44%

56%

100%

TOTAL

1,503

1,395

2,898

53%

47%

100%

Table 5: Number of Male and Female Trainers (2015)

REGION

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL (Male & Female)

% Male

% Female

% Total

CAR

58

38

96

60%

40%

100%

I

173

120

293

59%

41%

100%

II

118

115

233

51%

49%

100%

III

180

118

298

60%

40%

100%

IV-A

366

276

642

57%

43%

100%

IV-B

113

83

196

58%

42%

100%

NCR

276

237

513

54%

46%

100%

V

197

165

362

54%

46%

100%

VI

106

91

197

54%

46%

100%

VII

155

165

320

48%

52%

100%

VIII

207

193

400

52%

48%

100%

IX

113

106

219

52%

48%

100%

X

0

0

0

0%

0%

0%

XI

317

346

663

48%

52%

100%

XII

117

77

194

60%

40%

100%

ARMM

62

35

97

64%

36%

100%

CARAGA

68

39

107

64%

36%

100%

TOTAL

2,626

2,204

4,830

53%

41%

94%

Table 6: Number of Male and Female Trainers (2016)

REGION

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL (Male & Female)

% Male

% Female

% Total

CAR

99

98

197

50%

50%

100%

I

208

166

374

56%

44%

100%

II

161

177

338

48%

52%

100%

III

295

214

509

58%

42%

100%

IV-A

397

265

662

60%

40%

100%

IV-B

99

59

158

63%

37%

100%

NCR

526

417

943

56%

44%

100%

V

268

197

465

58%

42%

100%

VI

228

188

416

55%

45%

100%

VII

137

110

247

55%

45%

100%

VIII

0

0

0

0%

0%

0%

IX

148

132

280

53%

47%

100%

X

234

297

531

44%

56%

100%

XI

157

136

291

54%

46%

100%

XII

254

318

572

44%

56%

100%

ARMM

45

55

100

45%

55%

100%

CARAGA

88

62

150

59%

41%

100%

TOTAL

3,344

2,891

6,235

50%

44%

94%

Table 7: Number of Male and Female Trainers (2017)

REGION

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL (Male & Female)

% Male

% Female

% Total

CAR

19

13

32

59%

41%

100%

I

165

144

309

53%

47%

100%

II

91

74

165

55%

45%

100%

III

188

138

326

58%

42%

100%

IV-A

243

184

427

57%

43%

100%

IV-B

94

91

185

51%

49%

100%

NCR

526

445

971

54%

46%

100%

V

96

129

225

43%

57%

100%

VI

114

104

218

52%

48%

100%

VII

78

38

116

67%

33%

100%

VIII

141

111

252

56%

44%

100%

IX

60

57

117

51%

49%

100%

X

95

86

181

52%

48%

100%

XI

70

39

109

64%

36%

100%

XII

147

161

308

48%

52%

100%

ARMM

83

89

172

48%

52%

100%

CARAGA

39

16

55

71%

29%

100%

TOTAL

2,249

1,919

4,168

55%

45%

100%

Salaries of Teachers/Trainers/Instructors

As per the Position Classification and Compensation Scheme (PCCS) for Faculty positions in State Universities and Colleges, for a starting level salary, an Instructor 1 receives SG 12 (PHP 22,149.00), while TVET trainers can earn PHP 265,788.00 annually.

Teachers’ Professional Development31

TESDA launched the National TVET Trainers Academy (NTTA) for the development of trainers in the Philippines.

Trainer Development Program

The Trainer Development Program is a response to the demand for quality trainers who will manage and implement the TVET system in the Philippines. The program will address the need to upgrade the institutional or organizational competencies of TVIs as measured by East Asia Summit TVET Quality Assurance Framework (EAS TVET QAF), TESDA Star Rating System and the Asia Pacific Accreditation and Certification Commission (APACC). The program shall enhance the competencies of Administrators, Supervisors, Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff based on the Competency Standards defined by the Human Resource Management Division – Administrative Services (HRMD-AS) of TESDA and the Philippine TVET Trainers’ Qualification Framework (PTTQF) Trainers’ Methodology (TM) Level I – IV.

The training programs to be implemented are categorized as executive, supervisory, and teaching personnel development programs:

  1. Executive Development Program – These training programs are intended for TVI administrators.
  2. Supervisory Development Program – These training program are intended for TVI instruction supervisors.
  3. Teaching Personnel Development Program – These training programs are intended for TVI trainers who are providing instruction in the classroom or workshop.
  4. Non-Teaching Personnel Development Program – These training programs are intended for personnel who perform functions in support of the training delivery and provide student support services. These personnel include guidance counselor, librarian, etc.
Private Sector Cooperation

TESDA Board Members

The TESDA Board, the highest policy making body of TESDA, includes 14 representatives from the private sector, which includes the labor sector, employer sector, business and investor sector, and education and training sector.

Development of Training Regulations

Industry experts are consulted and are involved in the development of training regulations, which includes the competency standards, training standards, and assessment and certification arrangements.

Current Trends & Practices

The following industries have large employment bases, are growing very rapidly and will create the most number of jobs in the next 5 years:1

  1. Tourism/Hotels/Restaurants
  2. Construction
  3. IT-BPO (IT-BPM)
  4. Transport, Communication and Storage

The following industries have large employment bases but has shown negative or minimal growth rate in the past. However, since they are important to the economy in terms of value-added and in terms of employment, the government wants to revitalize and strengthen them. These are:

  1. Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (including agro-processing)
  2. Manufacturing (led by Food Manufacturing)
  3. Electronics

The Health, Wellness and Other Social Services industry have high growth rates and good economic multiplier effects.

Reforms/Projects

TVET will undergo a two-pronged approach: TVET for Global competitiveness and Workforce Job-Readiness and TVET for Social Equity.1

For TVET for global competitiveness, the clientele would be workers that need skills upgrading, students of higher level qualifications, overseas Filipino workers, and the unemployed by ensuring that the training regulations, curriculum, and school facilities and equipment comply with global standards.  Similarly, TVET can prepare Senior High students under the TVL track. Grade 10 completers who will push thru Senior High, as well as Out-of-school youth are also targeted for workforce job-readiness by providing them with the required competencies that would prepare them for work. 

Secondly, TVET is for social equity. This is based on the universal principle of social inclusion, and places people, particularly  those who are socially excluded and displaced (such as informal workers, indigenous peoples, farmers, fisherfolks, drug dependents, rebel returnees, persons with disabilities (PWDs),  displaced OFWs with low-level skills, victims of abuse, human trafficking, and disasters) into the mainstream of society.

Key Issues & Challenges

Three Major Challenges in TVET (identified in the NTESDP 2017-2022)1

  1. The first challenge is the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution which will accelerate the convergence of industrial technology and information technology and will pervade all facets of human activities, not to mention the growing clamor for 21st century skills by a more sophisticated and advanced education and employment environment.
  1. The second challenge is to meet the very huge demand for a skilled and conscientious workforce in the eight priority industries identified by the NTESDP, which industries are forecast to generate higher economic value and much larger employment markets. The eight priority industries would require roughly six million quality workers in the six years of the planning period.
  1. The third challenge is to deliberately and affirmatively address the Filipino workforce who have been excluded and left behind by a fast growing Philippine economy largely focused on major urban areas and the formal employment sector. Filipino workers from the basic sectors have not been able to take advantage of the high economic growth rate because the leading industry employment generators did not have good multiplier effects, meaning they had limited linkages to the rest of the economy and produced little trickle-down effect.

NTESDP 2017-2022 Objectives, Strategies and Program Directions

  1. Create a conducive and enabling environment for the development and quality service delivery of the TVET sector in order to produce work-ready, globally competitive, green economy workers imbued with 21st century skills.
  2. Prepare the Philippine workforce for the challenges posed by the Fourth Industrial Revolution as it ushers in new jobs not yet in the marketplace that make existing ones obsolete.
  3. Assure industries with high economic and employment growth potentials are provided the required quantity of quality workforce
  4. Directly and more vigorously address workforce needs of the basic sectors in order to achieve greater social equity and economic inclusion.

Instil values and integrity in the conduct and delivery of TVET in the whole sector and to progressively align their programs and course offerings with global standards, especially in critical or priority sectors of the Philippine economy.

Acronyms/Abbreviations
ADB Asian Development Bank
AMS ASEAN Member States
APACC Asia Pacific Accreditation and Certification Commission
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AQRF ASEAN Qualifications Referencing Framework
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASEM Asia-Europe Meeting
BP Batas Pambansa
BTVE Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education
CATs Competency Assessment Tools
CHED Commission of Higher Education
DA Department of Agriculture
DepEd Department of Education
DECS Department of Education, Culture and Sports
DILG Department of Interior and Local Government
DOLE Department of Labor and Employment
DOST Department of Science and Technology
DSWD Department of Social Welfare and Development
DTI Department of Trade and Industry
DTS Dual Training System
EAS TVET QAF East Asia Summit TVET Quality Assurance Framework
EDCOM Congressional Commission for Education
ESS Employer Satisfaction Survey
GAA General Appropriations Act
HRMD-AS Human Resource Management Division - Administrative Services
ICT Information & Communication Technology
IES Impact Evaluation Survey
ILO International Labour Organization
IP Indigenous People
IT-BPO Information Technology - Business Process Outsourcing
IT-BPM Information Technology - Business Process Management
KPI Key Performance Indicator
LEP Ladderized Education Program
LGUs Local Government Units
NC National Certificate
NGO Non-government Organisation
NMYC National Manpower and Youth Council
NQF National Qualifications Framework
NTESDP National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan
NTTA National TVET Trainers Academy
OFW Overseas Filipino Worker
PCCS Position Classification and Compensation Scheme
PHP Philippine Peso
PQF Philippine Qualifications Framework
PRC Professional Regulations Commission
PTCACS Philippine TVET Competency Assessment and Certification System
PTTQF Philippines TVET Trainers’ Qualification Framework
PwDs People with Disabilities
QMS Quality Management System
RA Republic Act
StuFAP Student Financial Assistance Program
SG Salary Grade
SUCs State Universities and Colleges
TESD Technical Education and Skills Development
TESDA Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
TM Trainer’s Methodology
TR Training Regulation
TTI TESDA Technology Institutions
TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training
TVIs Techvoc Institutions
TVL Technical-Vocational-Livelihood
TWG Technical Working Group
UniFAST Unified Student Financial Assistance System for Tertiary Education
UTPRAS Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System

 

References

[1] TESDA. 2018. National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan 2018-2022.

[2] Batas Pambansa Blg. 232: An Act Providing for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Integrated System of Education. Retrieved from:
https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/bataspam/bp1982/bp_232_1982.html

[3] 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved from:
https://www.lawphil.net/consti/cons1987.html

[4] Republic Act No. 6655: An Act Establishing and Providing for a Free Public Secondary Education and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from:
https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1988/ra_6655_1988.html

[5] Republic Act 7722: An Act Creating the Commission on Higher Education, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from:
https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1994/ra_7722_1994.html

[6] Republic Act 7796: An Act Creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, Providing for its Powers, Structure and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from:
http://www.tesda.gov.ph/uploads/File/REPUBLIC%20ACT%20NO.%207796.pdf

[7] Republic Act 8292: An Act Providing for the Uniform Composition and Powers of the Governing Boards, the Manner of Appointment and Term of Office of The President of Chartered State Universities and Colleges, and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1997/ra_8292_1997.html

[8] Republic Act 10533: An Act Enhancing The Philippine Basic Education System by Strengthening its Curriculum and Increasing the Number of Years for Basic Education, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2013/ra_10533_2013.html

[9] Republic Act 10647: An Act Strengthening the Ladderized Interface between Technical-Vocational Education and Training and Higher Education. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2014/ra_10647_2014.html

[10] Republic Act 10650: An Act Expanding Access to Educational Services by Institutionalizing Open Distance Learning in Levels of Tertiary Education and Appropriating Funds Therefor. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2014/ra_10650_2014.html

[11] Republic Act 10687: An Act Providing for a Comprehensive and Unified Student Financial Assistance System for Tertiary Education (Unifast), thereby Rationalizing Access Thereto, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other Purposes. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2015/ra_10687_2015.html

[12] Republic Act 10771: An Act Promoting the Creation 01' Green Jobs. Granting Incentives and Appropriating Funds Therefor. Retrieved from: https://www.senate.gov.ph/republic_acts/ra%2010771.pdf

[13] Republic Act 10931: An Act Promoting Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education by Providing for Free Tuition and Other School Fees in State Universities and Colleges, Local Universities and Colleges and State-run Technical-Vocational Institutions, Establishing The Tertiary Education Subsidy and Student Loan Program, Strengthening the Unified Student Financial Assistance System for Tertiary Education, and Appropriating Fund Therefor. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2017/ra_10931_2017.html

[14] Republic Act 10968: An Act Institutionalizing The Philippine Qualifications Framework (Pqf), Establishing the Pqf-National Coordinating Council (Ncc) and Appropriating Funds Therefor. Retrieved from: http://pqf.gov.ph/Uploads/RA%2010968.pdf

[15] Republic Act 10970: An Act Declaring the Twenty-Fifth Day of August of Every Year as the National Tech-Voc Day. Retrieved from: http://www.thecorpusjuris.com/legislative/republic-acts/ra-no-10970.php

[16] TESDA. 2017. Quality Management System (QMS) Manual. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/Uploads/File/transparency/update2017/Quality%20Management%20System/QM%20%20Rev.02%20FINAL.pdf

[17] TESDA’s TVET For Social Equity. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/About/TESDA/17786

[18] Brief History of TESDA. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/About/TESDA/10

[19] National Economic Development Authority. 2017. Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022.

[20] General Appropriations Act 2017. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/Uploads/File/transparency/update2017/Approved%20Budget%20and%20MFO%20TArgets%20FY%202017/Approved%20Budget,%20FY%202017.pdf

[21] The Philippine Education System. Retrieved from: http://pqf.gov.ph/Home/PQR/31

[22] TVET Programs. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/About/TESDA/24

[23] PQF-NCC Technical Working Groups (TWGs). Retrieved from: http://pqf.gov.ph/Home/PQR/34

[24] The ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework. Retrieved from:
http://asean.org/asean-economic-community/sectoral-bodies-under-the-purview-of-aem/services/asean-qualifications-reference-framework/

[25] UTPRAS Guidelines. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/About/Tesda/42

[26] Assessment and Certification. Retrieved from: http://www.tesda.gov.ph/About/TESDA/25

[27] TESDA. 2012. Employer Satisfaction Survey 2011.

[28] TVET Statistics 2014-2016.

[29] TESDA. 2014. Impact Evaluation Study (IES) of TVET Programs.

[30] TESDA-NITESD. No. of Listed Trainers by year and by sex (2013-2017).

[31] TESDA-NTTA. Trainer Development Program.

  • Population

    103,796,831 (2017)a

  • Sex Ratio

    1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)b

  • HDI

    0.682 (2015)c

  • GDP (Total)

    $313.4 billion (2017 est.)b

  • GDP (Per Capita)

    $8,300 (2017 est.)b

  • Industry/Sectors (GDP Contribution)

    Agriculture: 9.6%
    Industry: 30.6%
    Services: 59.8% (2017 est.)b

  • Poverty Rate

    21.6% (2017 est.)b


Education

  • Education Index

    0.637 (2015)c

  • Adult Literacy Rate
    (% Ages 15 and Older)

    96.3% (2015)c

  • Expected Years of Schooling

    11.7 (2015)c

  • Mean Years of Schooling (Adults)

    9.3 (2015)c

  • School Dropout Rate

    % NAc

Employment

  • Unemployment Rate (Total)

    6.7% (2015)c

  • Unemployment Rate (Youth -15-24 Old)

    15.7% (2015)c

  • Composition of Workforce

    Agriculture: 25.4%
    Industry: 18.3%
    Services: 56.3% (2017 est.)b

  • a Population Pyramid
    b CIA World Factbook
    c UNDP HDR

    For official government data on key indicators, please refer to data released by official government source(s).

“SEAMEO VOCTECH in collaboration with UNESCO-UNEVOC has used its best endeavours to ensure that material contained in this publication, provided through SEA-VET.NET, is useful, informative and obtained from reliable sources. However, it gives no warranty and accepts no responsibility for the accuracy, reliability, legality or completeness of information and reserves the right to make changes without notice at any time in its absolute discretion.”

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