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Indonesia

This profile is represented by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) and the Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE). SEA-VET.NET shall supplement more information from other TVET line Ministries, private TVET institutions and relevant agencies in the course of time. Please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to share relevant information to help us further develop the profile.

Key Indicators


  • Capital

    Jakarta

  • Main Industries/Sectors

    Resource-based Economy (Petroleum, Tin, Natural Gas, Nickel, Timber, Bauxite, Copper, Fertile Soils, Coal, Gold & Silver)


Economy

TVET

Overview

The high unemployment rate, particularly of educated youths, is a pressing concern for Indonesia. With a focus on imparting education that leads to jobs, the Indonesian Government is strategically prioritising technical and vocational education and training (TVET). It aims to not just reduce the high unemployment rates among the educated youth, but also ensure that the students who cannot continue higher education are equipped with skills that enable them to become gainfully employed.

Thus, TVET in Indonesia is seen as an enabler of a skilled future workforce, as one of the ‘bridges for supporting the golden generation’, and as a key contributor in its economic development.

A range of Ministries are responsible for TVET in Indonesia. The most prominent ones include, the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), the Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE) and the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT). Local governments also play an important role in TVET delivery.

Formal TVET is offered at both, secondary and post-secondary levels. At the secondary level, Vocational High Schools (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan – SMK) offer three-year programmes to students that lead to secondary certificate level qualifications. Some vocational high schools, however, extend to the fourth year - SMK-Plus - that leads to a Diploma Certificate One (D1). Upon completion of secondary studies, students can either join the workforce or continue higher education via the professional route. At the tertiary level, SMK graduates can enrol in three-year Diploma Certificates (DI-DIV) offered by Polytechnics (Politeknik). They can still continue on the professional track to specialist I and II (Sp.1 and Sp.2) or join the workforce.

In addition, Vocational Training Centres, also known as Balai Latihan Kerja (BLKs) offer short courses to equip poor individuals, especially school dropouts, with skills that enable them to have access to formal education or work in the formal sector. BLKs form a significant part of the non-formal education system in Indonesia.

The Government of Indonesia has embarked upon revitalising the TVET system to increase the employability and competitiveness of Indonesian labour force at national, regional and the global scene. This major initiative is called TVET Revitalisation (SMK).

This profile outlines the TVET system in Indonesia and provides information on more recent efforts and developments.

Mission

The strategic direction of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Indonesia is defined by the following stances:

  • Indonesia’s Law No. 20 of 20031 about National Education System and Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC)’s directive identify vocational education as a key enabler in preparing students for work, further education (colleges and universities), and promote entrepreneurship. This follows the “BMW” principle - Bekerja (work), Melanjutkan (further study/continue), Wirausaha (becoming an entrepreneur)3;
  • At the higher level (e.g. Polytechnics), the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE) views vocational education as “one of the bridges for supporting the Indonesian golden generation”4; and
  • Vocational education is seen to play a strategic role in the economic development of the country.

In this context, Indonesia aims to increase TVET delivery as a strategy for increasing competitiveness of its graduates and their job performance. Improved access and provision of quality TVET, in particular to the youth, through public and private institutions are expected to enhance their employability across all levels of learning. This, in turn, is expected to yield positive results for the economic development of Indonesia, especially by increasing its economic competitiveness.

TVET in Indonesia is targeted at:

  • Increasing the quality, delivery and accessibility of TVET;
  • Improving the employability and participation of graduates through lifelong learning;
  • Reducing unemployment rate among the youth;
  • Shifting the enrolment ratio of students in general secondary education to vocational secondary education from 70:30 to 30:70 by 2020;
  • Boosting the competence and competitiveness of vocational school graduates locally, as well as internationally; and
  • Promoting job creation through entrepreneurship skills to support higher productivity, competitiveness and growth.
Legislation

In Indonesia TVET policy is directed (i) to be in line with the national economic development programmes, (ii) to produce graduates that meet with the labour market, and (iii) to fulfill the industrial demands which at the end it would contribute to the national economic growth.4

Indonesian National Education System Law of 2003 stipulates the overall legal structure of the Indonesian education system including TVET. The Law states that all levels of education, including the structure attached to each of them are under the purview of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC). This is supported by Manpower Act No. 13 of 20035 that regulates the national vocational training system (preparation for work), as well as the Teacher Law of 20056 that regulates the teachers’ profession and its quality. In addition, Indonesia plans to establish a new law specifically on the TVET system in the country.

With regard to quality assurance, accreditation authorities have been established under decree No 38/2013 to ensure the accreditation standards of TVET providers. These accreditation bodies include National Accreditation Board of School/Religious School (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Sekolah/Madrasah/ or BAN-SM) for all institutions at the secondary level including TVET (SMK); Accreditation Authority for training providers (Lembaga Akreditasi- Lembaga Pelatihan Kerja or LA-LPK) for vocational training centres or BLK (Balai Latihan Kerja) under MoMT; and Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Perguruan Tinggi or BAN-PT National Accreditation Body for Higher Education responsible for polytechnic accreditation.

Strategy

According to the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education – Ministry of Education and Culture (DTVE-MoEC), Indonesian government is making all efforts to significantly improve the effectiveness of vocational education by introducing a ‘demand-driven curricula’. This move is a result of the ‘Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on Revitalizing SMK in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources (Instruksi Presiden Nomor 9 Tahun 2016 Tentang Revitalisasi SMK dalam rangka Peningkatan Kualitasdan Daya Saing Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia)’.2 The expected resultant improvement of vocational education is aimed at enabling learners to be more competitive in the global labour markets.  In ensuring that vocational education is responsive to the labour market needs, the MoEC is now directing secondary vocational schools to focus on six priority areas: tourism, maritime programs, food security, creative industries, energy, and construction.

Under the Ministry of Industries (MOI), the government has a National Industry Development Plan 2025-2035, which focuses on development of human resources by facilitating Competency Testing Centre (Tempat Uji Kompetensi/TUK), human resources certification centre, and Indonesian National Work Competency Standards (Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia/SKKNI) in the field of education.7 This is also aimed at developing a people-based economy, and enabling Small and Medium Industries (SMI) to be a main source of employment, productivity and economic growth between 2025-2035.7

TVET strategies in Indonesia can be summarised under the revitalisation strategy outlined in the report of the ‘Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on Revitalizing TVET (SMK) in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources’.2 These are:

  1. Revitalisation of vocational schools that a) supports the development of national priorities such as food security, energy security, business and tourism development, maritime development - especially in underdeveloped areas and border areas, and b) accelerates the development of Papua and West Papua;
  2. Development of SMK model that is driven by cooperation with business/industry;
  3. Development of skills based on the projected needs of the workforce;
  4. Completion of curriculum in preparing competency of vocational education skills based on SKKNI (Indonesian National Work Competency Standard), KKNI and other relevant standards;
  5. Improvement of the quality of learning and assessment of learning outcomes, with the application of competency certification for learners;
  6. Improvement of quality assessment of education through accreditation;
  7. Improvement of the quality of the implementation of entrepreneurship and work skills of SMK through “Teaching Factory” (Industry-like school environment for students’ work-based learning);
  8. Improvement of the quality of facilities and infrastructure of learning in the classroom and workshop in SMK; and
  9. Fulfilment of availability, quality, competence and professionalism of vocational education personnel through Teacher Certification, pre - & in-service programmes for TVET teachers, and apprenticeship programmes.
Governance

In Indonesia, a range of Ministries are responsible for TVET. However, the most prominent ones include:

  1. Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) is responsible for planning and implementing educational services at primary and secondary levels. The MoEC carries out its functions through the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) along with the help of central sub-units. Central sub-units include, the General Secretariat, the National Institute for Educational Research and Development, the General Inspectorate, the General Directorate of Basic and Secondary Education, the General Directorate of Higher Education, the General Directorate of Non-formal and Informal Education, and the General Directorate for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel.
  2. Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE) is responsible for vocational education at higher level, i.e. Polytechnics.
  3. Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) is responsible for national training centres (BLK) that prepare citizens (school leavers) for the world of work

While educational planning is done at the central level, its implementation falls under the jurisdiction of local governments. This is in accordance with the decentralisation strategy of the Indonesian Government.

At the lower level, provincial offices were established in each of the 34 provinces (as of June 2009) and district offices in 508 districts and municipalities. These offices manage, adapt and implement ministerial policies at the local level. The following authorities are responsible for accreditation and competence certifications:

  1. National Professional Certification Board (BNSP) for issuing competence certificates;
  2. National Accreditation Board for School/Madrasah (BAN-SM) under the MoEC for accreditation in vocational high schools;
  3. National Accreditation Board for Higher Education (BAN-PT) under the MoRTHE for polytechnics, colleges and university accreditations; and
  4. Accreditation Board for Training Centres (LA-LSPK) under the MoMT for BLK1

Specifically, the distribution of educational affairs as stated in Act Number 23 of 20148 is as follows.

  1. For the Central Government:
    1. Education Management: Determination of national education standards; and Higher education management.
    2. Curriculum: Determination of national curriculum of secondary education, education basic, early childhood education, and non-formal education.
    3. Accreditation: Accreditation of universities, secondary education, basic education, early childhood education, and non-formal education.
    4. Educators and Education Personnel: Control of educator formation, transfer of educators, and career development of educators; the displacement of educators and cross-regional education personnel province.
    5. Education Licensing: Issuance of private university permits organized by society, and issuance of permits to organize foreign education unit.
    6. Language and Literature: Guidance on Indonesian language and literature.

  2. For the Provincial Government:
    1. Education Management: Management of secondary education; Management of special education.
    2. Curriculum: Determination of local and secondary education curriculum local content of special education.
    3. Educators and Education Personnel: Displacement of educators and cross-regional education personnel regencies/municipalities within 1 (one) province.
    4. Education Licensing: Issuance of secondary education permits held by society; issuance of special education permits held by
    5. Language and Literature: Development of language and literature that speakers across regions regencies/municipalities within 1 (one) province.

  3. For the Government at District/City level:
    1. Education Management: Basic education management; Management of early childhood education and non-formal education.
    2. Curriculum: Determination of local content curriculum of basic education, education early childhood, and non-formal education.
    3. Educators and Education Personnel: Displacement of educators and education personnel in the regions district/city
    4. Education Licensing: Issuance of basic education permits held by society; Issuance of early childhood education permits and non-formal education organized by the community.
    5. Language and Literature: Development of language and literature that speakers in the region district/city.
Financing

Stipulated by the Law on National Education No. 20 of 2003,1 like other educational services, TVET financing is a joint responsibility between the government through the MoEC (20% of national budget to finance education services) and other education stakeholders, such as, local governments (20% Regional budget contribution) and communities1,9. Private TVET institutions (SMK) are privately financed; funding depends on the type of ownership (individual, faith-based, Non-governmental Organisation (NGO), and partnership) and requires operational authorisation from the Ministry. Private schools may charge fees from students to run the institution.

System

National Education System

Formal education in Indonesia starts from Kindergarten to Higher Education. The national education system is based on the K-12 System (fig. 1).9(14) Religious institutions also provide education at each respective education level.

The formal education levels are as follows:

1. Pre-school Education

According to National Education System Law No. 20 of 2003 Article 28,1 Early Childhood Education (ECE) is provided through formal, non-formal and/or informal education. ECE is also known as Pre-school education, which refers to non-compulsory education provided to children between 4-6 years of age, and lasts 1-2 years. Formal ECE is provided in kindergarten (Taman Kanak-Kanak /TK) and other similar institutions; non-formal ECE consists of day care centres, play groups; and the informal ECE consists of infants’ family development, and integrated health service centres. ECE is also provided in Islamic religious preschools with kindergarten.

2. Basic Education

This consists of nine years of compulsory education for all school-going age Indonesian citizens. It includes:

  1. Primary or Elementary Education (SD) that begins at the age of seven and takes six years to complete. All learners end their primary education (grade 6) by taking a national examination and a psychological test, results of which enable them to continue to junior secondary level. Primary education is also provided by religious schools.
  2. Junior secondary education (SMP), which is the second and last part of compulsory basic education and takes three years to complete. Learners complete this level (grade 9) by passing the national examination that leads to an award of lower secondary certificate.

3. Senior Secondary Education

Successful candidates from junior secondary school can progress to senior secondary education by pursuing either general secondary education (SMA) or vocational secondary education (SMK). Senior secondary education takes three years to complete.

  1. General secondary schools (SMA) (grade 10-12) follow the academic stream that prepares students to continue to higher institutions of learning such as universities, colleges, polytechnics etc. In the first year, i.e. grade 10, the curricula focus on general learning. However, in the second and third year, (grade 11 and 12), students can specialize in an area of their choice by selecting one of the four specializations: natural sciences (IPA), social sciences (IPS), languages and religious studies.
  2. Vocational secondary schools (SMK) impart vocational education and training and prepare students for the world of work. While most SMKs offer three year programmes, some can also extend the programmes by a year. The fourth year leads to a Diploma Certificate One (D1). These vocational education programmes are also provided by religious vocational schools (MAK).

SMA/SMK/MAK graduates receive a national certificate of secondary education upon successful completion of their respective programmes, which is subject to passing the final national examinations.

4. Tertiary Education

Graduates from secondary schools can opt for higher studies (at universities, institutes, schools of higher learning, academies, or polytechnics), based on their chosen field of study, i.e. general or vocational. Those from the general stream, can pursue a Bachelor’s Certificate (S1) followed by Master’s (S2) and Doctoral (S3) degrees. Alternatively, graduates from vocational secondary schools can opt for the professional track. They can further their studies at Polytechnics (Politeknik) for Diploma Certificates (DI-DIV) and continue to specialist I and II (Sp.1 and Sp.2).

Indo Fig 1

Figure 1. Structure of the Education System of Indonesia9(p34)

[SD = Sekolah Dasar; SMP = Sekolah Menengah Pertama; SMA/SMK= Sekolah Menengah Atas/Kejuruan; S = Sarjana (S1 = Bachelor, S2 = Master degree, S3 = Doctorate)]

TVET System

Formal TVET System

Formal technical and vocational education and training is offered at secondary, as well as tertiary levels in Indonesia, by both public and private institutions.

At the secondary education level, Vocational High Schools, also known as Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMKs) and Islamic Vocational Schools (MAK) offer three-year programmes to students that lead to secondary certificate level qualifications. Some vocational high schools, however, extend to the fourth year - SMK-Plus - that leads to a Diploma Certificate One (D1). Students who have successfully completed junior secondary school (SMP) are eligible to enrol in SMKs. Apart from enrolling in the programme, TVET students are encouraged to also puruse Skills Certificate courses from industries while they are still in school to enhance their employability skills.

Both, SMK Negeri (public) as well as SMK Swasta (private) schools offer vocational education at secondary level. The Vocational High School Education is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) under the Directorate Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE). It is responsible for designing and developing the vocational curriculum in consultation with the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) and Ministry of Industries (MOI).

Vocational secondary schools focus on developing students’ expertise in these main sectors or fields: technology and engineering; information and communication technology; health; arts, crafts, and tourism; agro-business technology; and business and management. However, majority of the institutes specialize primarily in technology and industry (86%) or business and management programmes (76%).

SMKs offer 144 competences, however, about 60% of the competency proportion is filled only by 10 major competencies namely: computer and network engineering; accounting; office administration; light vehicle engineering; engineering machinery; motor vehicle engineering; multimedia; marketing; and engineering cooler.9

Upon completion of three years of secondary studies at the SMK, graduates are awarded the national secondary certificate. From hereon, they can a) directly join the labour market by filling job vacancies available in industries related to their course of study or work independently as entrepreneurs, or b) pursue higher education at tertiary institutions.

At the tertiary level and in accordance with the Higher Education Act, vocational programmes are offered by a variety of tertiary institutions like: community colleges, academies, advanced schools, institutes and universities.

SMK graduates can pursue higher studies at Polytechnics (Politeknik) by enrolling in three-year Diploma Certificates (DI-DIV) and still continue on the professional track to specialist I and II (Sp.1 and Sp.2)9. They are regulated by the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE).

According to BPS 2015 and the Indonesian Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs’ report 2017 titled “Policy of vocation development in Indonesia 2017-2025”,10,11 currently Indonesia has 13,337 vocational secondary schools, out of which 3,434 are public and 9,903 are private vocational high schools. Additionally, there are 172 polytechnics, 279 BLKs, and 1,034 private academies.

Non-formal & Informal TVET System

In Indonesia, non-formal education16 is provided to develop the potential of learners by imparting academic knowledge along with functional skills for their professional and personal development.

Under the MoEC, non-formal education is regulated by the Directorate General of Early Childhood Education and Community Education13 and is provided as equality education to those who could not have access to formal education. It is organised as Education Outside Schools (Pendidikan Luar Sekolah or PLS) under several programmes. Some of the common ones include:

1. Community Learning Centre (CLC) programmes14: Commonly known as Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat (PKBM), CLC programmes are lifelong learning programmes starting right from childhood, for those who could not get access to formal education.

One of the PKBM programmes is the ‘Equivalency programme’12 that offers courses in packages (Pakets) to study groups (Kejar) and equals the formal education streams. For example, Paket A is equal to elementary school (Sekolah Dasar - SD); Paket B is equivalent to junior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama - SMP); and Paket C is similar to senior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Atas/ Kejuruan - SMA/SMK). Study groups primarily target people living in remote areas; however, they are also conducted in urban areas to prepare workers and trainees to enter the job market with specific upgraded skills.

Pertinent to the education standards, as stated in the law regarding national education standards No. 19 of year 2005, PKBM also follows:

  1. Content standards, in that it covers basic education framework, curriculum and calendar;
  2. Learning process standards (as stated in national education standards law No. 3 of year 2008), in that it covers planning, implementation of learning, evaluation of learning outcomes and supervision of learning programmes; and
  3. Recognition standards, in that graduates’ qualifications are recognized as per the national assessment and certification process carried out by the non-formal and informal education accreditation and certification agencies under the purview of the MoEC.

Upon successful completion of PKBM, graduates can either seek employment to join the labour force or enroll for further studies like graduates from formal education system.

The objectives of such programmes are to:

  1. Ensure the completion of quality basic education for socioeconomically disadvantaged groups including children (those who could never attend school and school dropouts), ethnic minorities, those residing in backward, poorly, socially, isolated or difficult-to-reach villages due to geographic locations and or with limitations of transportation;
  2. Ensure the fulfillment of learning needs for all citizens of the productive age through fair access to learning and life skills programmes;
  3. Contribute in increasing the average length of education to at least nine years, so as to improve the Human Development Index (HDI);
  4. Help erase gender inequalities in primary and secondary education;
  5. Provide opportunities for community members who wish to complete education equivalent to elementary/junior and senior high school or equivalent with good quality;
  6. Serve learners’ who need academic education and life skills flexibility to actualize themselves while improving the quality of life.

2. Balai Latihan Kerja (BLK) courses: BLKs are vocational training centres15 that form a significant part of the non-formal education system in Indonesia.12 The main objective of BLKs is to equip poor individuals, especially school dropouts, with skills that enable them to have access to formal education or work in the formal sector. Thus, BLKs offer vocational education courses to poor individuals and school dropouts, as well as offer job placement services to formal and informal workers.

Training programmes provided by BLKs are of three types:

  1. BLK Type A: it is offered by larger training providers in urban centres that provide industrial training and service skills, along with smaller players that provide training in different technologies and skills for self-employment;
  2. BLK Type B: this involves smaller urban centres that offer informal education comprising self-learning, family and community education; and
  3. BLK Type C: it is offered by the most humble training providers from rural areas.

BLKs offer a variety of programmes through Community-Based Training (CBT) and Mobile Training Units (MTU).

BLKs provides four kinds of training, which include institutional training (job training programmes which aim to increase the skills of job seekers); non-institutional training (training programmes for people in remote areas organised through Mobile Training Units); apprenticeship programmes; and demand-based training programmes which are based on the demand of industries).

BLK programmes cover a wide range of areas, including Hotel/Tourism, Telematics/IT, Agriculture, Institution (Train PNS), Construction, Apprenticeship, Electricity, Mechanical Technology, and Commerce. Agriculture and hotel/tourism are the most promising programmes for employability. Graduates receive a BLK certificate upon successful completion of their BLK course.

BLKs are a part of the National Training for Work System, which is regulated by the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) under the Law No. 13 of 20035 on ‘Manpower Act and Government Regulation on National Training for Work system’ (System Pelatihan Kerja Nasional). For recognition purposes, all BLKs have to be assessed by the Government assessment board. In accordance with the decentralisation strategy of the Indonesian Government, BLKs are under the purview of district governments.

National Qualifications Framework

The National Qualifications Framework of Indonesia is called the Indonesian National Qualifications Framework (INQF) or Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia (KKNI) (fig. 2).

KKNI is a stand-alone system and a bridge between the education and training sectors to establish qualified and certified human resources through formal, non-formal, informal, job training or work experience schemes. KKNI provides new vocational qualifications known as Sertifikat Kompetensi Kerja/Work Competency Certificate (SKK), which provides new pathways for Indonesian citizens to access formal education and skill training. SKK in KKNI is directed at creating a demand-driven system with relevant training outcomes. It ensures that ‘competencies’ are systematically identified and packaged into vocational qualifications that in turn align with the needs of Indonesian enterprises and national economy as a whole. KKNI increases the relevance and flexibility of vocational education and training programmes by better aligning them to the needs of the labour market.17,18 INQF is implemented as a tool for TVET quality assurance.

At the ASEAN level, the KKNI provides a basis, through improved labour mobility, for better regional integration of economies consistent with Indonesia’s commitments to the ASEAN Economic Blueprint. It is expected to not only provide a mechanism for improving the ability of workers from Indonesia to find jobs in other ASEAN countries commensurate with their training and experience, but also improve the capacity of ASEAN employers to appreciate and benchmark the skills and abilities of Indonesian workers. KKNI also performs the function as a reference tool for both the higher education and the vocational training systems.

It provides a measure of the approximate equivalence between various vocational and higher education qualifications for a fair determination of credit transfer between programmes or courses for those individuals following a chosen career path that requires them to bridge both sectors. Upon completion of senior secondary level, a certificate is awarded that entitles the trainees to continue with tertiary education. Upon its completion, the trainees acquire a higher education institution certificate e.g. a Diploma level qualification when graduating from an Academy or Polytechnic, a Sarjana/baccalaureate (level S1) qualification that is awarded after 4-years of full-time studies at a recognised university, institute or advanced school, or a  Magister (S2) which is awarded after a period of two year of further studies at the University level. Students in public non-formal vocational training institutions (BLKs) receive certificates upon completion. They may also take a company trainee exam and/or a professional association exam to receive a certificate from the company or association in question.

Indo Fig 2
Figure 2. Structure of Indonesia National Qualification Framework (KKNI)17
Quality Assurance & Standards

Quality Assurance of education services, including TVET, is crucial in providing more confidence to consumers of the educational output produced by TVET providers. In Indonesia, quality assurance of TVET is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture and Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, which is implemented through various accreditation bodies and authorities (see fig. 3). These include:

  1. National Accreditation Board for school/madrasah (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Sekolah/Madrasah or BAN-SM) for Vocational High schools (SMK), together with Competency Standardization (STANCOM) institution;
  2. Accreditation of training providers (LA-LPK) and Non-formal – National Accreditation Board for Non-formal Education (Badan Akreditasi Nasional - Pendidikan or BAN-PNF) institutions for training centers; and
  • National Accreditation Board for Higher Education (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi or BAN-PT) with all certification of profession competency under National Professional Certification Board (BNSP)19

The function of these institutions is to provide competency tests and certifications of recognition for certain trades and professions. However, coaching, supervision and licensing of professional certification agencies is conducted by BNSP.

Indo Fig 3
Figure 3. Accreditation Structure

Accreditation of vocational schools and quality assurance are undertaken by LA-LPK - an independent institution overseeing that training institutions comply with the eight quality standards established by the MoMT.19 Also, accreditation is awarded to the LPK conducting education/training for graduates to get Work Competency Certificate (SKK) according to the level of qualification (KKNI) or SKKNI cluster. The LPK conducting education/training based on other standards (such as international standards, special standards and local standards) may also be accredited. Figure 4 illustrates the accreditation process.

Indo Fig 4
Figure 4. Accreditation Process19

Table 1 summarises the purpose and objectives of the eight quality standards set by the MoMT, which are20:

Standard 1: Work Competence (Use of SKKNI and other standards);

Standard 2: Structured Curriculum;

Standard 3: Training Materials;

Standard 4: Management System (management of training center);

Standard 5: Staff Qualifications (instructors and training personnel);

Standard 6: Facilities and Equipment;

Standard 7: Financial Feasibility (financial administration); and

Standard 8: Assessment.

Table 1. Purpose/objectives of eight quality standards set by the MoMT19,20

Summary of Eight Standards

Standard

Purpose/Objective

Standard 1:

Work  Competence

Training is based upon national qualifications or units of competency clusters endorsed according to national guidelines set by MoM or upon other standards/ training outcomes that are clearly identified

Standard 2:

Curriculum

The provider uses structured written curriculum based upon outcomes or SKKNI

Standard 3:

Training Materials

The provider uses training materials and training processes appropriate for its scope of services

Standard 4:

Management System

The provider has a management system that supports its current and intended scope of operations the provider

Standard 5:

Staff Qualifications

The provider has staff appropriately qualified for their jobs

Standard 6:

Facilities and Equipment

The provider has access to equipment and facilities to support its scope of operations

Standard 7:

Financial Administration

The provider is financially viable

Standard 8:

Assessment

The provider conducts high quality skills assessment that enables candidates to demonstrate their competency to a LSP or achieving of training outcomes to

As a way of quality assurance, accreditation of both formal and non-formal educational programmes and education institutions is emphasised. Currently, Indonesia has about 327 institutions recognised by BNSP as accreditors and competence test assessors.21 To ensure a consistent quality assurance regime, Indonesian policies at the regional level include:

  • The development of regional cooperation for developing standards, certification and qualifications, and implementing the standards with national bodies responsible for certification and accreditation;
  • The acceleration and implementation of national standards, qualifications and certification by national bodies through involving industries and governments; and
  • The conduct of benchmarking of regional quality assurance; adopting and adapting the regional quality standards for improving the national quality assurance standards.

Quality assurance procedure of assessment and verification is presented in Table 2.

Table 2.  Quality Assurance Procedure of Assessment and Verification22(p158)

STANDCOM

Quality Assurance of

Standardisation of

Competency & Qualification

conducted by Stancom (MoMT)

LA-LPK

Quality Assurance of Training

Provider conducted by

Accreditation Authority

(LA-LPK)

BNSP

Quality Assurance of

Professional certification

conducted by Certification

Authority (BNSP)

Procedure of Verification

Procedure of Verification

Procedure of Verification

Planning  stage

• Identify technical bureau of trustees

• Verify industry association

• Validate representation

association

Preparation  stage

• Verify representative of committee

• Verify RMSCS standard on

competency draft

• Verify of implementation of

convention

Standardization  stage

• Verify the final result convention

• Verify the final draft of SKKNI/competency standard

• Verify requirement document for further processing

Establishment stage

• Verify technical institution of trustees

• Verify the agenda of

convention

• Verify the documents for

MOMT approval

Dissemination stage

• Identify the process of dissemination

• Verify self assessment of provider

Application stage

• Verify request of accreditation

• Verify accreditation document of provider

• Verify schedule ofaccreditation

Desk assessment stage

• Verify completeness of document

• Verify assessor examination

record

• Verify desk assessment result

Visitation stage

• Verify the findings of assessor record

• Verify assessor’s assessment

result

Final report stage

• Verify completeness of report of assessor

• Verify the accuracy of assessor report

 

Assessment information stage

• Verify dissemination processby LSP

Registration stage

• Verify list of applicants

• Verify assessment readiness of LSP

Evaluation of application stage

• Verify completeness of

application

• Verify pre-/ self assessment

• Verify sufficiency of evidence

Competency assessment stage

• Verify suitability ofassessment place

• Verify methods ofassessment

• Verify result of written test,

performance and other portfolios

Assessor recommendation stage

• Verify assessor recommendation

• Verify assessor assessment

result

• Verify completeness of report document

Graduates

The quality of (SMK) graduates is determined by the mastery of work competency standard (Indonesian National Work Competency Standards or SKKNI).25 Based on the standard of competence, a system of testing and certification was formulated for competency standards established under the SKKNI.

Given the low levels of absorption of the SMK graduates in the labour market, the quality of TVET graduates continues to be a challenge. Certification schemes for TVET (SMK) graduates involving professional associations and world of business and industry, and implementation of competency tests have been used for minimising the competency gap.

In 2017, while public secondary vocational schools accounted for 41% (522,712) of vocational graduates, private secondary vocational schools accounted for 59% (740,036). 12,412 and 21,881 students dropped-out of public and private secondary vocational schools respectively.23

SMKs offer a range of programmes covering 144 occupations to graduates. The most popular ones are Computer Technology and Network, Office Administration, Marketing, and Hospitality. Specifically, Computer Technology and Network (13.69%) and Accounting (13.59%) are the most sought after programmes.23

With regard to salaries, in 2016, an entry level SMK graduate could receive approximately IDR 2.5 million per month; whereas, graduates from general high schools could receive a slightly higher monthly salary of IDR 2.6 million. Furthermore, those with undergraduate degrees received IDR 4.8 million per month.24

As far as the unemployment rates of graduates based on educational attainment are concerned, SMK graduates ranked the second highest (11.41%) (fig. 5).23,26

Indo Fig 5
Figure 5. Total unemployment rate by education level in Indonesia (2014-2017)26
Personnel (Teachers)

Composition of Personnel

TVET personnel under SMKs can be grouped into two: teaching and non-teaching staff. Based on SMK Statistics 2017/2018, a total of 4,904,031 students (2,110,751 from public and 2,793,280 from private SMKs) were enrolled in 13,710 SMKs comprising 3,519 public and 10,191 private schools respectively. The total number of teachers was 292,212 including 141,813 teachers from public (student-teacher ratio of 15:1) and 150,399 teachers from private (student-teacher ratio of 14:1) SMKs respectively. The non-teaching staff totalled to 53,020 (29,128 from public and 23,892 staff from private SMKs).27

It is challenging to gather exclusive data on TVET personnel at post-secondary level. This is because TVET programmes offered by universities cannot be separated from the academic programmes (such as a bachelor’s degree from an academic degree). For this reason, the university statistics are presented separately from other types of higher education offered at polytechnics, community colleges, and academies.

The number of postsecondary TVET institutions, such as polytechnics and community colleges is only 205 with a total  number of 248,872 students, and 13,368 instructors/lecturers. The student-lecturer ratio is 18.6:1.

Salaries of Teachers/Trainers/Instructors

Indonesia uses basic salary strategy for all civil servants who are at level one of professionally certified and government-appointed workers without taking up any extra responsibility besides their professions. Based on this, the basic entry level salary for TVET teachers entering Group 3 with Bachelor’s degree is IDR 2,456,700 and Master’s degree is IDR 2,560,600 respectively. Teachers also receive additional benefits, such as family allowance, food allowance and teaching allowance. Apart from this, those holding structural positions receive an additional responsibility allowance, and those with teaching certification receive an additional salary that equals as much as their basic salaries. A teacher holding a bachelor’s degree and teaching certification in Central Java for instance, has an entry level salary of IDR 7,117,565 excluding family and food allowances.28,29

Qualification of TVET Teachers/Instructors/Trainers

As per law, the minimum educational qualification for teachers at secondary vocational schools (SMK) is either Diploma IV (DIV) or Undergraduate Degree (S1). In other words, to become a qualified TVET teacher, one has to complete a four year university degree or four years of higher education or Diploma IV from Polytechnics obtaining a teacher certificate, as well as demonstrate professional, pedagogical, personal, and social competencies. Furthermore, prospective teachers need to complete teaching practicum at a selected school and pass an annual teacher competency-based test.

For teaching at polytechnic level, the minimum qualification is Master’s degree in relevant disciplines. This applies for polytechnics under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE), as well as those under the Ministry of Health (MoH). Those who meet the minimum qualifications accompanied with relevant industrial experience generally have more advantages in terms of securing a job and progressing in their professions.

Thus, teacher certification is one strategy intended to ensure quality of teachers with competencies that lead to improved quality of TVET education in Indonesia. Teacher Certification is an in-service programme for teachers expected to produce better quality of education and it is conducted through (1) the direct provision of the certificate, (2) portfolio assessment, (3) education and training of the teacher (PLPG), and (4) teacher professional education (PPG).

Figure 6 shows the percentage of teachers by highest certificate and level of education.

Indo Fig 6
Figure 6: Percentage of Teachers by Highest Certificate and Level of Education9(p141)

Teachers’ Professional Development

Indonesia offers pre-service and in-service programmess for teachers’ professional development and progression (fig. 7)30; the MoEC endorses it by offering scholarships via the Institute for Educational Quality Assurance.31 At the same time, the MoRTHE regards research projects as important tools for teacher development.

According to Paryono (2015),30 Indonesia has undertaken the following policies regarding teacher development:

  1. Teacher certification programme for In-Service Teachers, including vocational teachers;
  2. Teacher Certification Consortium;
  3. National Standard of Education;
  4. Qualification and Teacher Competence Standards (legal instruments) used as the basis for the implementation of teacher certification;

Academic Qualification Requirements that require a teacher to a) have academic qualification of DIV or Bachelor for secondary TVET or Magister or Doctor for higher education lecturers obtained from accredited higher institutions in education or relevant subjects, and b) fulfil the requirement of sufficient teaching experience2,3.

Indo Fig 7
Figure 7: Pre-service and In-service Certification of Teachers30

Educational Institutions for Teaching  Personnel (LPTK) prepare teachers to teach at SMKs. The LPTKs include universities offering vocational and technical teacher education formerly at Institute of Teacher Training and Education (IKIP), as well as at Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences (FKIP) under private STKIPs  (Colleges of Teaching and Educational Sciences; Vocational Education Development Centres) (Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidikdan Tenaga Kependidikan or P4TK/Center for Development and  Empowerment  of  Teachers and Education Personnel).

While efforts towards teachers’ professional development are ongoing, some of the developments made thus far for improving teacher quality and professionalism include:

  • Establishment of the Centre for Teacher Activity or Pusat Kegiatan Guru (PKG);
  • Formation of Teachers’ Working Group or Kelompok Kerja Guru (KKG); and
  • Formation of Forums for Teacher-Subject Consultation or Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP) that allow teachers to share their experiences in solving the problem they face in teaching activities.
Private Sector Cooperation

Indonesia lays special focus on the development of Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP) at all three levels - national, regional and international, to enhance the quality of TVET. In particular, partnerships with the private sector are being forged to diversify TVET and improve the delivery and quality of TVET programmes.33

Private sector cooperation is an avenue also endorsed by the Government of Indonesia, as exhibited in a speech of President Joko Widodo: 

“I also think we have to involve the business world and industries because they have a better understanding about the needs of workforce, including in primary sectors such as maritime, tourism, agriculture, and creative economy. The system and demands of the business world and industries must be integrated in the vocational education and training system such as vocational schools or vocational training center (BLK).”32

Additionally, Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on ‘Revitalizing SMK in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources’ (Instruksi Presiden Nomor 9 Tahun 2016 Tentang Revitalisasi SMK dalam rangka Peningkatan Kualitasdan Daya Saing Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia)2  indicates Indonesia’s priority for Public-Private-Partnership.

PPP between TVET (SMK) and world of business and industries can take several forms, such as student internship placement, institutional refurbishment support, “train-the-trainer” programmes, and curriculum design development to ensure delivery of demand-driven TVET programmes.

Specifically, development of ‘demand-driven’ programmes is based on the concept of “Link” and “Match”. This concept highlights the need to make SMK programmes relevant by aligning them with labour market needs. One of the implementation strategies of link and match is the adoption of Dual Education System (Pendidikan Sistem Ganda or PSG) that systematically integrates and synchronises educational programmes in schools and skills acquisition programmes gained through direct work in the workplace. A common example of PSG in Indonesia is internship or industrial work practice programme (Prakerin), which involves activities such as: synchronisation and curriculum validation, guest teachers from industries and competency test.

During the development of National TVET curriculum, the Government through the MoEC always invites industry representatives to contribute in design and developing the curriculum after which it is passed to the provincial levels for implementation.

Although, presently there are no formalised public-private-partnerships in Indonesia, as a part of the link and match strategy between school programmes and industry demands, each vocational institution is encouraged to initiate cooperation with industries based on its location and needs.

Current Trends & Practices

Current trends and practices with regard to TVET in Indonesia are:

  • Revitalising TVET (SMK)2
    Current Indonesian workforce needs to possess the skills required to compete in the 21st Century. In this view the Government of Indonesia has embarked upon revitalising the TVET system to increase the employability and competitiveness of Indonesian labour force at national, regional and the global scene.
  • Shifting the vocational education paradigm
    Lately, there has been a shift from a supply-based to a demand-based TVET system that is responsive to the needs of the labour market. The government is encouraging TVET providers to equip students with skills especially, 21st skills to enable them to become more employable after their graduations.
  • Increasing more practical skills than knowledge (theoretical)
    Due to skills gap and mismatches in competences provided by TVET institutions and those required by industries, Indonesian government (through the MoEC) is prioritising skills over knowledge as a new education goal. This entails application of demand driven curriculum, involvement of industrial partners in conducting of TVET activities such as curriculum synchronisation, certification and assessment of students.
  • Prioritising skills development in economically vibrant occupations
    The Government has identified key sectors and occupations to boost the economy, reduce imports and increase exports. These include, real estate, e-commerce, food security and cash crops (for boosting exports), and engineering and manufacturing (lean manufacturing, ship building, infrastructure, textiles, fashion, and industry). In addition, other strategic sectors include food and beverages, steel, mining, transportation services, ICT, cyber security, accounts and finance, marketing and sales, procurement and supply chain, and health and life sciences. Digital sector is witnessing rapid growth.34 All of these fields call for the development of new skills through programmes offered at TVET (SMK) in the country. Also, a point of consideration is that employers prefer hiring qualified candidates with managerial, marketing, and soft skills and expertise.
Reforms/Projects

The ongoing TVET reforms and projects in Indonesia are in line with the current trends and practices.

‘TVET Revitalisation’

‘TVET Revitalisation’ is the Indonesian Government’s key reform and strategy to improve the quality of its labour force by improving the quality of its TVET education system. It is established to produce quality human resources with relevant skills, competences and excellent character to increase their global competitiveness. Following the Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on Revitalizing SMK in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources,2 the revitalisation of TVET has the following objectives:

  1. To refine and harmonise TVET (SMK) curricula with competences in accordance with the needs of graduates (link and match) and industries;
  2. To increase the number and competence for educators and educational power in SMK;
  3. To improve cooperation with ministries/agencies, local governments, and the business/industry; and
  4. To increase access, certification and accreditation of SMK

With this strategy, Indonesia aims to equip its human resources with 21st Century Skills to respond to rapid technological advancements, changes in business processes, as well as to changes in work structures in workplaces, which demand soft and transferrable skills. These skills include:

  1. Skills related to thinking (e.g. creativity and innovation, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, learning to learn/metacognitive);
  2. Work-related skills (e.g. communication and cooperation);
  3. Skills that can be used as instruments of action (collection of information/data, use of information technology and media devices); and
  4. Skills related to the ability to function well within personal and community life (integrity, discipline, responsibility, adaptability, leadership, nationalism and other insights).

Shifting the enrolment share of general education to vocational education

Few years back, the share of enrolment of students in general education had been larger than that of vocational education (70:30). However, due to the demand for more human resources with relevant skills and competences, the government is shifting the share of enrolment in general high school (SMA) to vocational high school (SMK) from 70:30 to 30:70 respectively, and hopes to achieve the target by 2020. In support of this, more vocational high schools (SMK) are being established. According to BPS, in the year 2015 Indonesia had more SMKs (13,337; 52%) than SMAs (12,513; 48%). (fig. 8)

Figure 8: Proportion of Vocational High Schools (SMK) to General High Schools (SMA) in Indonesia35

Figure 8: Proportion of Vocational High Schools (SMK) to General High Schools (SMA) in Indonesia35

Other key efforts include:

  • Strengthening digital literacy by utilising the potential of digital and e-learning technologies in learning and teaching processes to enable TVET providers and learners to cope with the globalisation trend. The Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) is working towards integration of ICT infrastructure in all TVET institutions to ease and foster the teaching and learning process;
  • Improving the TVET quality through Public-Private-Partnership by fostering cooperation between TVET institutions and industrial partners. As a priority strategy of the Government, the MoEC is encouraging each vocational high school to collaborate with industries, and increasing quality assurance of TVET service providers;
  • Improving teachers’ quality through training and certification to get competent subject teachers by 2020 as stipulated in the revitalisation strategy of Indonesia TVET system; and
  • Promoting entrepreneurial skills to prepare potential entrepreneurs and innovators through local-based creative industries. This is intended to create more jobs in the labour market, as well as increase the economic base through increased production that will spur up more economic growth and development.
Key Issues & Challenges

The main issues pertain to how collaboration with the industry is redefining the demand focus of TVET, and how the technological revolution requires an adequate balance between the skills demand and supply. The key issues and challenges are as follows36:

  • The quality of TVET graduates is still low and does not meet the industry demands and competences. This problem is exacerbated by skills mismatch.37,38 As a result, the unemployment rate of SMK graduates continues to remain high in comparison with other education levels. A well-established quality apprenticeship model with industries (which is still currently missing) can help address this problem. Dual VET System, such as that in Germany, could be a good solution in bridging the skill mismatch between vocational schools and industry.
  • The quality of TVET teachers has been one of the major challenges affecting the quality of TVET graduates. Many TVET teachers do not meet required qualifications as indicated in the Law No 14 of 20056 and No 74 of 200840 about teachers and lecturers. Several lack industry experience and certification that makes them incompetent in their fields of teaching.
  • Infrastructural facilities including training equipments are inadequate, obsolete, and, oftentimes, not in line with the new and changing requirements of TVET institutions. Due to the high cost involved in buying such equipments, SMKs are unable to simulate real work environments in classrooms, which in turn affects teaching quality and outcomes. To overcome this, SMKs forge institutional partnerships with industries to improvise the advanced equipments; however, sometimes such cooperation is unsuccessful due to administrative and financial constraints.
  • Matching standards and certification towards mutual recognition of TVET graduates, as well as industry certifications and occupational standards, are key to improving the quality of TVET institutions. Still, many industries have not fully accepted this because of the perceived high costs associated with certification and disruption in business operations anticipated due to integration of school activities. With the central and local governments allocating only a small budget for subsidies for quality assurance, incentives for motivating industries to engage in quality assurance for TVET are few.
  • Based on Inpres No. 9/2016,2 a system of coordination and shared-responsibilities between Ministries in Indonesia still needs to well-established (i.e. Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Trade, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, etc).39
Acronyms/Abbreviations
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BAN-PNF Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Pendidikan Non Formal (National Accreditation Body for Non Formal Education)
BAN-PT Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Perguruan Tinggi (National Accreditation Body for Higher Education)
BAN-SM Badan Akreditasi Nasional Sekolah/Madrasah (National Accreditation Board of School/Religious School)
BLK Balai Latihan Kerja (Vocational Training Centre)
BMW Bekerja, Melanjutkan, Wirausaha (Work, Continue, Entrepreneur)
BNSP Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi (National Professional Certification Board)
BPS Badan Pusat Statistik (Indonesian Bureau of Statistics)
CBT Community-Based Training
CLC Community Learning Centre
D (I-IV) Diploma Certificate (I-IV)
DTVE Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education
FKIP Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences
HDI Human Development Index
HE Higher Education
IDR Indonesian Rupiah
IKIP Institute of Teacher Training and Education
IPA Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam (Natural Sciences)
IPS Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial Social Sciences
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IT Information Technology
K-12 Kindergarten to 12th Grade
KKG Kelompok Kerja Guru (Teachers’ Working Group)
KKNI Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Qualifications Framework)
LA-LPK Lembaga Akreditasi - Lembaga Pelatihan Kerja (Accreditation Authority for Training Providers)
LA-LSPK Accreditation Board for Training Centres
LPK Lembaga Pelatihan Kerja (Job Training Institutions)
LPTK Lembaga Pendidik Tenaga Kerja (Educational Institutions for Teaching Personnel)
LSP Lembaga Sertifikasi Profesi (Professional Certification Institution)
MAK Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (Islamic Vocational School)
MGMP Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (Forums for Teacher-Subject Consultation)
MoEC Ministry of Education and Culture
MoH Ministry of Health
MoI Ministry of Industries
MoMT Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration
MoRTHE Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education
MTU Mobile Training Units
NGO Non-governmental Organisation
NQF National Qualifications Framework
INQF Indonesian National Qualifications Framework
P4TK Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidikdan Tenaga Kependidikan (Center for Development and   Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel)
PKBM Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat (Community Learning Centre)
PKG Pusat Kegiatan Guru (Centre for Teacher Activity)
PLPG Education and Training of the Teacher
PLS Pendidikan Luar Sekolah (Education Outside School)
PPG Pendidikan Profesional Guru (Teacher Professional Education)
PPP Public-Private-Partnership
PSG Pendidikan Sistem Ganda (Dual Education System)
RCC Recognition of Current Competencies
RMSCS Regional Model of Competency Standards
RPL Recognition of Prior Learning
S 1/2/3 Sarjana (S1 = Bachelor, S2 = Master degree, S3 = Doctorate)
Sp.1/2 Specialist 1/2
SD Sekolah Dasar (Elementary Education)
SKK Sertifikat Kompetensi Kerja (Work Competency Certificate)
SKKNI Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Work Competency Standards)
SMA/GSS Sekolah Menengah Atas (General Secondary School/Senior High School)
SMI Small and Medium Industries
SMK/VSS Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (Vocational Secondary School/Vocational High School)
SMP/JSS Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior Secondary School/Junior High School)
STANDCOM Standard Competence
STKIP Colleges of Teaching and Educational Sciences
TK Taman Kanak-Kanak (Kindergarten)
TUK Tempat Uji Kompetensi (Competency Testing Centre/ Centre for Competence Testing)
TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training
VET Vocational Education and Training

 

References

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[36] SEAMEO. (2017, May). Event Documentation. 3rd High Officials Meeting (HOM) On Southeast Asia - Technical and Vocational Education and Training (SEA - TVET) - 21st Century TVET in Southeast Asia: Advancing Toward Harmonization and Internationalization, Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved from http://files.seameo.org/?dir=18_3rd%20HOM%20on%20SEA-TVET%2C%2023-25%20May%202017%2C%20Kuala%20Lumpur%2C%20Malaysia [Accessed 20 Jun. 2018].

[37] Iryanti, R. (2017, August). Education & Skill Mismatch di Indonesia: Kondisi Saat Ini Dan Kebijakan Pemerintah. Retrieved from http://sdgcenter.unpad.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Rahma-Iryanti-Education-Skill-Mismatch-di-Indonesia-Kondisi-Saat-ini-dan-Kebijakan-Pemerintah.pdf [Accessed 20 Jun. 2018].

[38] Education: Vocational Education in Indonesia; Crucial to Compete in the ASEAN. (2016). Global Business Guide Indonesia. Retrieved from http://www.gbgindonesia.com/en/education/article/2016/vocational_education_in_indonesia_crucial_to_compete_in_the_asean_11489.php [Accessed 20 Jun. 2018].

[39] MoEC (Ministry of Education and Culture). (2016). Peta Jalan Pengembangan SMK 2017-2019.

[40] Satyawati, S.T., Widyanto, I.P. & Suemy. (2017). Improving the Professionalism of Post-Certification Teacher Through Academic Supervision in Vocational Schools. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1818(1). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4976913 [Accessed 20 Jun. 2018].

  • Population

    263,510,146 (2017)a

    Indonesia poppyramid

  • Sex Ratio

    1 male(s)/female (2017)b

  • HDI

    0.689 (2015)c

  • GDP (Total)

    $1.015 trillion (2017 est.)b

  • GDP (Per Capita)

    $12,400 (2017 est.)b

  • Industry/Sectors (GDP Contribution)

    Agriculture: 13.9%
    Industry: 40.3%
    Services: 45.9% (2017 est.)b

  • Poverty Rate

    10.9% (2016 est.)b


Education

  • Education Index

    0.622 (2015)c

  • Adult Literacy Rate
    (% Ages 15 & Older)

    93.9% (2015)c

  • Expected Years of Schooling

    12.9 (2015)c

  • Mean Years of Schooling (Adults)

    7.9 (2015)c

  • School Dropout Rate

    18.1% (2013)c


Employment

  • Unemployment Rate (Total)

    5.8% (2015)c

  • Unemployment Rate (Youth - 15-24 Old)

    19.3% (2015)c

  • Composition of Workforce

    Agriculture: 32%
    Industry: 21%
    Services: 47% (2016 est.)b

  • a Population Pyramid
    b CIA World Factbook
    c UNDP HDR

    For official government data on key indicators, please refer to data released by official government source(s).

     

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