“… I want in 2018, we pay attention to improve our human resources investment. We have about 250 million people and 60 percent of them are the youths. This demographical bonus should be our strength and chance through the improvement of education quality and vocational training as what we started in 2017.”
- Joko Widodo
President of the Republic of Indonesia; January 3rd, 2018, during the Cabinet Plenary Meeting in Jakarta
Resource-based Economy (Petroleum, Tin, Natural Gas, Nickel, Timber, Bauxite, Copper, Fertile Soils, Coal, Gold & Silver)
The high unemployment rate, particularly of educated youths, is a pressing concern for Indonesia. With a focus on imparting education that leads to jobs, the Indonesian Government is strategically prioritising technical and vocational education and training (TVET). It aims to not just reduce the high unemployment rates among the educated youth, but also ensure that the students who cannot continue higher education are equipped with skills that enable them to become gainfully employed.
Thus, TVET in Indonesia is seen as an enabler of a skilled future workforce, as one of the ‘bridges for supporting the golden generation’, and as a key contributor in its economic development.
A range of Ministries are responsible for TVET in Indonesia. The most prominent ones include, the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), the Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE) and the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT). Local governments also play an important role in TVET delivery.
Formal TVET is offered at both, secondary and post-secondary levels. At the secondary level, Vocational High Schools (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan – SMK) offer three-year programmes to students that lead to secondary certificate level qualifications. Some vocational high schools, however, extend to the fourth year - SMK-Plus - that leads to a Diploma Certificate One (D1). Upon completion of secondary studies, students can either join the workforce or continue higher education via the professional route. At the tertiary level, SMK graduates can enrol in three-year Diploma Certificates (DI-DIV) offered by Polytechnics (Politeknik). They can still continue on the professional track to specialist I and II (Sp.1 and Sp.2) or join the workforce.
In addition, Vocational Training Centres, also known as Balai Latihan Kerja (BLKs) offer short courses to equip poor individuals, especially school dropouts, with skills that enable them to have access to formal education or work in the formal sector. BLKs form a significant part of the non-formal education system in Indonesia.
The Government of Indonesia has embarked upon revitalising the TVET system to increase the employability and competitiveness of Indonesian labour force at national, regional and the global scene. This major initiative is called TVET Revitalisation (SMK).
This profile outlines the TVET system in Indonesia and provides information on more recent efforts and developments.
The strategic direction of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Indonesia is defined by the following stances:
In this context, Indonesia aims to increase TVET delivery as a strategy for increasing competitiveness of its graduates and their job performance. Improved access and provision of quality TVET, in particular to the youth, through public and private institutions are expected to enhance their employability across all levels of learning. This, in turn, is expected to yield positive results for the economic development of Indonesia, especially by increasing its economic competitiveness.
TVET in Indonesia is targeted at:
In Indonesia TVET policy is directed (i) to be in line with the national economic development programmes, (ii) to produce graduates that meet with the labour market, and (iii) to fulfill the industrial demands which at the end it would contribute to the national economic growth.4
Indonesian National Education System Law of 2003 stipulates the overall legal structure of the Indonesian education system including TVET. The Law states that all levels of education, including the structure attached to each of them are under the purview of the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC). This is supported by Manpower Act No. 13 of 20035 that regulates the national vocational training system (preparation for work), as well as the Teacher Law of 20056 that regulates the teachers’ profession and its quality. In addition, Indonesia plans to establish a new law specifically on the TVET system in the country.
With regard to quality assurance, accreditation authorities have been established under decree No 38/2013 to ensure the accreditation standards of TVET providers. These accreditation bodies include National Accreditation Board of School/Religious School (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Sekolah/Madrasah/ or BAN-SM) for all institutions at the secondary level including TVET (SMK); Accreditation Authority for training providers (Lembaga Akreditasi- Lembaga Pelatihan Kerja or LA-LPK) for vocational training centres or BLK (Balai Latihan Kerja) under MoMT; and Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Perguruan Tinggi or BAN-PT National Accreditation Body for Higher Education responsible for polytechnic accreditation.
According to the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education – Ministry of Education and Culture (DTVE-MoEC), Indonesian government is making all efforts to significantly improve the effectiveness of vocational education by introducing a ‘demand-driven curricula’. This move is a result of the ‘Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on Revitalizing SMK in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources (Instruksi Presiden Nomor 9 Tahun 2016 Tentang Revitalisasi SMK dalam rangka Peningkatan Kualitasdan Daya Saing Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia)’.2 The expected resultant improvement of vocational education is aimed at enabling learners to be more competitive in the global labour markets. In ensuring that vocational education is responsive to the labour market needs, the MoEC is now directing secondary vocational schools to focus on six priority areas: tourism, maritime programs, food security, creative industries, energy, and construction.
Under the Ministry of Industries (MOI), the government has a National Industry Development Plan 2025-2035, which focuses on development of human resources by facilitating Competency Testing Centre (Tempat Uji Kompetensi/TUK), human resources certification centre, and Indonesian National Work Competency Standards (Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia/SKKNI) in the field of education.7 This is also aimed at developing a people-based economy, and enabling Small and Medium Industries (SMI) to be a main source of employment, productivity and economic growth between 2025-2035.7
TVET strategies in Indonesia can be summarised under the revitalisation strategy outlined in the report of the ‘Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on Revitalizing TVET (SMK) in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources’.2 These are:
In Indonesia, a range of Ministries are responsible for TVET. However, the most prominent ones include:
While educational planning is done at the central level, its implementation falls under the jurisdiction of local governments. This is in accordance with the decentralisation strategy of the Indonesian Government.
At the lower level, provincial offices were established in each of the 34 provinces (as of June 2009) and district offices in 508 districts and municipalities. These offices manage, adapt and implement ministerial policies at the local level. The following authorities are responsible for accreditation and competence certifications:
Specifically, the distribution of educational affairs as stated in Act Number 23 of 20148 is as follows.
Stipulated by the Law on National Education No. 20 of 2003,1 like other educational services, TVET financing is a joint responsibility between the government through the MoEC (20% of national budget to finance education services) and other education stakeholders, such as, local governments (20% Regional budget contribution) and communities1,9. Private TVET institutions (SMK) are privately financed; funding depends on the type of ownership (individual, faith-based, Non-governmental Organisation (NGO), and partnership) and requires operational authorisation from the Ministry. Private schools may charge fees from students to run the institution.
Formal education in Indonesia starts from Kindergarten to Higher Education. The national education system is based on the K-12 System (fig. 1).9(14) Religious institutions also provide education at each respective education level.
The formal education levels are as follows:
1. Pre-school Education
According to National Education System Law No. 20 of 2003 Article 28,1 Early Childhood Education (ECE) is provided through formal, non-formal and/or informal education. ECE is also known as Pre-school education, which refers to non-compulsory education provided to children between 4-6 years of age, and lasts 1-2 years. Formal ECE is provided in kindergarten (Taman Kanak-Kanak /TK) and other similar institutions; non-formal ECE consists of day care centres, play groups; and the informal ECE consists of infants’ family development, and integrated health service centres. ECE is also provided in Islamic religious preschools with kindergarten.
2. Basic Education
This consists of nine years of compulsory education for all school-going age Indonesian citizens. It includes:
3. Senior Secondary Education
Successful candidates from junior secondary school can progress to senior secondary education by pursuing either general secondary education (SMA) or vocational secondary education (SMK). Senior secondary education takes three years to complete.
SMA/SMK/MAK graduates receive a national certificate of secondary education upon successful completion of their respective programmes, which is subject to passing the final national examinations.
4. Tertiary Education
Graduates from secondary schools can opt for higher studies (at universities, institutes, schools of higher learning, academies, or polytechnics), based on their chosen field of study, i.e. general or vocational. Those from the general stream, can pursue a Bachelor’s Certificate (S1) followed by Master’s (S2) and Doctoral (S3) degrees. Alternatively, graduates from vocational secondary schools can opt for the professional track. They can further their studies at Polytechnics (Politeknik) for Diploma Certificates (DI-DIV) and continue to specialist I and II (Sp.1 and Sp.2).
Figure 1. Structure of the Education System of Indonesia9(p34)
[SD = Sekolah Dasar; SMP = Sekolah Menengah Pertama; SMA/SMK= Sekolah Menengah Atas/Kejuruan; S = Sarjana (S1 = Bachelor, S2 = Master degree, S3 = Doctorate)]
Formal TVET System
Formal technical and vocational education and training is offered at secondary, as well as tertiary levels in Indonesia, by both public and private institutions.
At the secondary education level, Vocational High Schools, also known as Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMKs) and Islamic Vocational Schools (MAK) offer three-year programmes to students that lead to secondary certificate level qualifications. Some vocational high schools, however, extend to the fourth year - SMK-Plus - that leads to a Diploma Certificate One (D1). Students who have successfully completed junior secondary school (SMP) are eligible to enrol in SMKs. Apart from enrolling in the programme, TVET students are encouraged to also puruse Skills Certificate courses from industries while they are still in school to enhance their employability skills.
Both, SMK Negeri (public) as well as SMK Swasta (private) schools offer vocational education at secondary level. The Vocational High School Education is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) under the Directorate Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE). It is responsible for designing and developing the vocational curriculum in consultation with the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) and Ministry of Industries (MOI).
Vocational secondary schools focus on developing students’ expertise in these main sectors or fields: technology and engineering; information and communication technology; health; arts, crafts, and tourism; agro-business technology; and business and management. However, majority of the institutes specialize primarily in technology and industry (86%) or business and management programmes (76%).
SMKs offer 144 competences, however, about 60% of the competency proportion is filled only by 10 major competencies namely: computer and network engineering; accounting; office administration; light vehicle engineering; engineering machinery; motor vehicle engineering; multimedia; marketing; and engineering cooler.9
Upon completion of three years of secondary studies at the SMK, graduates are awarded the national secondary certificate. From hereon, they can a) directly join the labour market by filling job vacancies available in industries related to their course of study or work independently as entrepreneurs, or b) pursue higher education at tertiary institutions.
At the tertiary level and in accordance with the Higher Education Act, vocational programmes are offered by a variety of tertiary institutions like: community colleges, academies, advanced schools, institutes and universities.
SMK graduates can pursue higher studies at Polytechnics (Politeknik) by enrolling in three-year Diploma Certificates (DI-DIV) and still continue on the professional track to specialist I and II (Sp.1 and Sp.2)9. They are regulated by the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE).
According to BPS 2015 and the Indonesian Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs’ report 2017 titled “Policy of vocation development in Indonesia 2017-2025”,10,11 currently Indonesia has 13,337 vocational secondary schools, out of which 3,434 are public and 9,903 are private vocational high schools. Additionally, there are 172 polytechnics, 279 BLKs, and 1,034 private academies.
Non-formal & Informal TVET System
In Indonesia, non-formal education16 is provided to develop the potential of learners by imparting academic knowledge along with functional skills for their professional and personal development.
Under the MoEC, non-formal education is regulated by the Directorate General of Early Childhood Education and Community Education13 and is provided as equality education to those who could not have access to formal education. It is organised as Education Outside Schools (Pendidikan Luar Sekolah or PLS) under several programmes. Some of the common ones include:
1. Community Learning Centre (CLC) programmes14: Commonly known as Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat (PKBM), CLC programmes are lifelong learning programmes starting right from childhood, for those who could not get access to formal education.
One of the PKBM programmes is the ‘Equivalency programme’12 that offers courses in packages (Pakets) to study groups (Kejar) and equals the formal education streams. For example, Paket A is equal to elementary school (Sekolah Dasar - SD); Paket B is equivalent to junior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama - SMP); and Paket C is similar to senior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Atas/ Kejuruan - SMA/SMK). Study groups primarily target people living in remote areas; however, they are also conducted in urban areas to prepare workers and trainees to enter the job market with specific upgraded skills.
Pertinent to the education standards, as stated in the law regarding national education standards No. 19 of year 2005, PKBM also follows:
Upon successful completion of PKBM, graduates can either seek employment to join the labour force or enroll for further studies like graduates from formal education system.
The objectives of such programmes are to:
2. Balai Latihan Kerja (BLK) courses: BLKs are vocational training centres15 that form a significant part of the non-formal education system in Indonesia.12 The main objective of BLKs is to equip poor individuals, especially school dropouts, with skills that enable them to have access to formal education or work in the formal sector. Thus, BLKs offer vocational education courses to poor individuals and school dropouts, as well as offer job placement services to formal and informal workers.
Training programmes provided by BLKs are of three types:
BLKs offer a variety of programmes through Community-Based Training (CBT) and Mobile Training Units (MTU).
BLKs provides four kinds of training, which include institutional training (job training programmes which aim to increase the skills of job seekers); non-institutional training (training programmes for people in remote areas organised through Mobile Training Units); apprenticeship programmes; and demand-based training programmes which are based on the demand of industries).
BLK programmes cover a wide range of areas, including Hotel/Tourism, Telematics/IT, Agriculture, Institution (Train PNS), Construction, Apprenticeship, Electricity, Mechanical Technology, and Commerce. Agriculture and hotel/tourism are the most promising programmes for employability. Graduates receive a BLK certificate upon successful completion of their BLK course.
BLKs are a part of the National Training for Work System, which is regulated by the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MoMT) under the Law No. 13 of 20035 on ‘Manpower Act and Government Regulation on National Training for Work system’ (System Pelatihan Kerja Nasional). For recognition purposes, all BLKs have to be assessed by the Government assessment board. In accordance with the decentralisation strategy of the Indonesian Government, BLKs are under the purview of district governments.
The National Qualifications Framework of Indonesia is called the Indonesian National Qualifications Framework (INQF) or Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia (KKNI) (fig. 2).
KKNI is a stand-alone system and a bridge between the education and training sectors to establish qualified and certified human resources through formal, non-formal, informal, job training or work experience schemes. KKNI provides new vocational qualifications known as Sertifikat Kompetensi Kerja/Work Competency Certificate (SKK), which provides new pathways for Indonesian citizens to access formal education and skill training. SKK in KKNI is directed at creating a demand-driven system with relevant training outcomes. It ensures that ‘competencies’ are systematically identified and packaged into vocational qualifications that in turn align with the needs of Indonesian enterprises and national economy as a whole. KKNI increases the relevance and flexibility of vocational education and training programmes by better aligning them to the needs of the labour market.17,18 INQF is implemented as a tool for TVET quality assurance.
At the ASEAN level, the KKNI provides a basis, through improved labour mobility, for better regional integration of economies consistent with Indonesia’s commitments to the ASEAN Economic Blueprint. It is expected to not only provide a mechanism for improving the ability of workers from Indonesia to find jobs in other ASEAN countries commensurate with their training and experience, but also improve the capacity of ASEAN employers to appreciate and benchmark the skills and abilities of Indonesian workers. KKNI also performs the function as a reference tool for both the higher education and the vocational training systems.
It provides a measure of the approximate equivalence between various vocational and higher education qualifications for a fair determination of credit transfer between programmes or courses for those individuals following a chosen career path that requires them to bridge both sectors. Upon completion of senior secondary level, a certificate is awarded that entitles the trainees to continue with tertiary education. Upon its completion, the trainees acquire a higher education institution certificate e.g. a Diploma level qualification when graduating from an Academy or Polytechnic, a Sarjana/baccalaureate (level S1) qualification that is awarded after 4-years of full-time studies at a recognised university, institute or advanced school, or a Magister (S2) which is awarded after a period of two year of further studies at the University level. Students in public non-formal vocational training institutions (BLKs) receive certificates upon completion. They may also take a company trainee exam and/or a professional association exam to receive a certificate from the company or association in question.
Quality Assurance of education services, including TVET, is crucial in providing more confidence to consumers of the educational output produced by TVET providers. In Indonesia, quality assurance of TVET is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture and Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, which is implemented through various accreditation bodies and authorities (see fig. 3). These include:
The function of these institutions is to provide competency tests and certifications of recognition for certain trades and professions. However, coaching, supervision and licensing of professional certification agencies is conducted by BNSP.
Accreditation of vocational schools and quality assurance are undertaken by LA-LPK - an independent institution overseeing that training institutions comply with the eight quality standards established by the MoMT.19 Also, accreditation is awarded to the LPK conducting education/training for graduates to get Work Competency Certificate (SKK) according to the level of qualification (KKNI) or SKKNI cluster. The LPK conducting education/training based on other standards (such as international standards, special standards and local standards) may also be accredited. Figure 4 illustrates the accreditation process.
Table 1 summarises the purpose and objectives of the eight quality standards set by the MoMT, which are20:
Standard 1: Work Competence (Use of SKKNI and other standards);
Standard 2: Structured Curriculum;
Standard 3: Training Materials;
Standard 4: Management System (management of training center);
Standard 5: Staff Qualifications (instructors and training personnel);
Standard 6: Facilities and Equipment;
Standard 7: Financial Feasibility (financial administration); and
Standard 8: Assessment.
Table 1. Purpose/objectives of eight quality standards set by the MoMT19,20
Summary of Eight Standards
Training is based upon national qualifications or units of competency clusters endorsed according to national guidelines set by MoM or upon other standards/ training outcomes that are clearly identified
The provider uses structured written curriculum based upon outcomes or SKKNI
The provider uses training materials and training processes appropriate for its scope of services
The provider has a management system that supports its current and intended scope of operations the provider
The provider has staff appropriately qualified for their jobs
Facilities and Equipment
The provider has access to equipment and facilities to support its scope of operations
The provider is financially viable
The provider conducts high quality skills assessment that enables candidates to demonstrate their competency to a LSP or achieving of training outcomes to
As a way of quality assurance, accreditation of both formal and non-formal educational programmes and education institutions is emphasised. Currently, Indonesia has about 327 institutions recognised by BNSP as accreditors and competence test assessors.21 To ensure a consistent quality assurance regime, Indonesian policies at the regional level include:
Quality assurance procedure of assessment and verification is presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Quality Assurance Procedure of Assessment and Verification22(p158)
Quality Assurance of
Competency & Qualification
conducted by Stancom (MoMT)
Quality Assurance of Training
Provider conducted by
Quality Assurance of
conducted by Certification
Procedure of Verification
Procedure of Verification
Procedure of Verification
• Identify technical bureau of trustees
• Verify industry association
• Validate representation
• Verify representative of committee
• Verify RMSCS standard on
• Verify of implementation of
• Verify the final result convention
• Verify the final draft of SKKNI/competency standard
• Verify requirement document for further processing
• Verify technical institution of trustees
• Verify the agenda of
• Verify the documents for
• Identify the process of dissemination
• Verify self assessment of provider
• Verify request of accreditation
• Verify accreditation document of provider
• Verify schedule ofaccreditation
Desk assessment stage
• Verify completeness of document
• Verify assessor examination
• Verify desk assessment result
• Verify the findings of assessor record
• Verify assessor’s assessment
Final report stage
• Verify completeness of report of assessor
• Verify the accuracy of assessor report
Assessment information stage
• Verify dissemination processby LSP
• Verify list of applicants
• Verify assessment readiness of LSP
Evaluation of application stage
• Verify completeness of
• Verify pre-/ self assessment
• Verify sufficiency of evidence
Competency assessment stage
• Verify suitability ofassessment place
• Verify methods ofassessment
• Verify result of written test,
performance and other portfolios
Assessor recommendation stage
• Verify assessor recommendation
• Verify assessor assessment
• Verify completeness of report document
The quality of (SMK) graduates is determined by the mastery of work competency standard (Indonesian National Work Competency Standards or SKKNI).25 Based on the standard of competence, a system of testing and certification was formulated for competency standards established under the SKKNI.
Given the low levels of absorption of the SMK graduates in the labour market, the quality of TVET graduates continues to be a challenge. Certification schemes for TVET (SMK) graduates involving professional associations and world of business and industry, and implementation of competency tests have been used for minimising the competency gap.
In 2017, while public secondary vocational schools accounted for 41% (522,712) of vocational graduates, private secondary vocational schools accounted for 59% (740,036). 12,412 and 21,881 students dropped-out of public and private secondary vocational schools respectively.23
SMKs offer a range of programmes covering 144 occupations to graduates. The most popular ones are Computer Technology and Network, Office Administration, Marketing, and Hospitality. Specifically, Computer Technology and Network (13.69%) and Accounting (13.59%) are the most sought after programmes.23
With regard to salaries, in 2016, an entry level SMK graduate could receive approximately IDR 2.5 million per month; whereas, graduates from general high schools could receive a slightly higher monthly salary of IDR 2.6 million. Furthermore, those with undergraduate degrees received IDR 4.8 million per month.24
As far as the unemployment rates of graduates based on educational attainment are concerned, SMK graduates ranked the second highest (11.41%) (fig. 5).23,26
Composition of Personnel
TVET personnel under SMKs can be grouped into two: teaching and non-teaching staff. Based on SMK Statistics 2017/2018, a total of 4,904,031 students (2,110,751 from public and 2,793,280 from private SMKs) were enrolled in 13,710 SMKs comprising 3,519 public and 10,191 private schools respectively. The total number of teachers was 292,212 including 141,813 teachers from public (student-teacher ratio of 15:1) and 150,399 teachers from private (student-teacher ratio of 14:1) SMKs respectively. The non-teaching staff totalled to 53,020 (29,128 from public and 23,892 staff from private SMKs).27
It is challenging to gather exclusive data on TVET personnel at post-secondary level. This is because TVET programmes offered by universities cannot be separated from the academic programmes (such as a bachelor’s degree from an academic degree). For this reason, the university statistics are presented separately from other types of higher education offered at polytechnics, community colleges, and academies.
The number of postsecondary TVET institutions, such as polytechnics and community colleges is only 205 with a total number of 248,872 students, and 13,368 instructors/lecturers. The student-lecturer ratio is 18.6:1.
Salaries of Teachers/Trainers/Instructors
Indonesia uses basic salary strategy for all civil servants who are at level one of professionally certified and government-appointed workers without taking up any extra responsibility besides their professions. Based on this, the basic entry level salary for TVET teachers entering Group 3 with Bachelor’s degree is IDR 2,456,700 and Master’s degree is IDR 2,560,600 respectively. Teachers also receive additional benefits, such as family allowance, food allowance and teaching allowance. Apart from this, those holding structural positions receive an additional responsibility allowance, and those with teaching certification receive an additional salary that equals as much as their basic salaries. A teacher holding a bachelor’s degree and teaching certification in Central Java for instance, has an entry level salary of IDR 7,117,565 excluding family and food allowances.28,29
Qualification of TVET Teachers/Instructors/Trainers
As per law, the minimum educational qualification for teachers at secondary vocational schools (SMK) is either Diploma IV (DIV) or Undergraduate Degree (S1). In other words, to become a qualified TVET teacher, one has to complete a four year university degree or four years of higher education or Diploma IV from Polytechnics obtaining a teacher certificate, as well as demonstrate professional, pedagogical, personal, and social competencies. Furthermore, prospective teachers need to complete teaching practicum at a selected school and pass an annual teacher competency-based test.
For teaching at polytechnic level, the minimum qualification is Master’s degree in relevant disciplines. This applies for polytechnics under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE), as well as those under the Ministry of Health (MoH). Those who meet the minimum qualifications accompanied with relevant industrial experience generally have more advantages in terms of securing a job and progressing in their professions.
Thus, teacher certification is one strategy intended to ensure quality of teachers with competencies that lead to improved quality of TVET education in Indonesia. Teacher Certification is an in-service programme for teachers expected to produce better quality of education and it is conducted through (1) the direct provision of the certificate, (2) portfolio assessment, (3) education and training of the teacher (PLPG), and (4) teacher professional education (PPG).
Figure 6 shows the percentage of teachers by highest certificate and level of education.
Teachers’ Professional Development
Indonesia offers pre-service and in-service programmess for teachers’ professional development and progression (fig. 7)30; the MoEC endorses it by offering scholarships via the Institute for Educational Quality Assurance.31 At the same time, the MoRTHE regards research projects as important tools for teacher development.
According to Paryono (2015),30 Indonesia has undertaken the following policies regarding teacher development:
Academic Qualification Requirements that require a teacher to a) have academic qualification of DIV or Bachelor for secondary TVET or Magister or Doctor for higher education lecturers obtained from accredited higher institutions in education or relevant subjects, and b) fulfil the requirement of sufficient teaching experience2,3.
Educational Institutions for Teaching Personnel (LPTK) prepare teachers to teach at SMKs. The LPTKs include universities offering vocational and technical teacher education formerly at Institute of Teacher Training and Education (IKIP), as well as at Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences (FKIP) under private STKIPs (Colleges of Teaching and Educational Sciences; Vocational Education Development Centres) (Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidikdan Tenaga Kependidikan or P4TK/Center for Development and Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel).
While efforts towards teachers’ professional development are ongoing, some of the developments made thus far for improving teacher quality and professionalism include:
Indonesia lays special focus on the development of Public-Private-Partnerships (PPP) at all three levels - national, regional and international, to enhance the quality of TVET. In particular, partnerships with the private sector are being forged to diversify TVET and improve the delivery and quality of TVET programmes.33
Private sector cooperation is an avenue also endorsed by the Government of Indonesia, as exhibited in a speech of President Joko Widodo:
“I also think we have to involve the business world and industries because they have a better understanding about the needs of workforce, including in primary sectors such as maritime, tourism, agriculture, and creative economy. The system and demands of the business world and industries must be integrated in the vocational education and training system such as vocational schools or vocational training center (BLK).”32
Additionally, Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on ‘Revitalizing SMK in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources’ (Instruksi Presiden Nomor 9 Tahun 2016 Tentang Revitalisasi SMK dalam rangka Peningkatan Kualitasdan Daya Saing Sumber Daya Manusia Indonesia)2 indicates Indonesia’s priority for Public-Private-Partnership.
PPP between TVET (SMK) and world of business and industries can take several forms, such as student internship placement, institutional refurbishment support, “train-the-trainer” programmes, and curriculum design development to ensure delivery of demand-driven TVET programmes.
Specifically, development of ‘demand-driven’ programmes is based on the concept of “Link” and “Match”. This concept highlights the need to make SMK programmes relevant by aligning them with labour market needs. One of the implementation strategies of link and match is the adoption of Dual Education System (Pendidikan Sistem Ganda or PSG) that systematically integrates and synchronises educational programmes in schools and skills acquisition programmes gained through direct work in the workplace. A common example of PSG in Indonesia is internship or industrial work practice programme (Prakerin), which involves activities such as: synchronisation and curriculum validation, guest teachers from industries and competency test.
During the development of National TVET curriculum, the Government through the MoEC always invites industry representatives to contribute in design and developing the curriculum after which it is passed to the provincial levels for implementation.
Although, presently there are no formalised public-private-partnerships in Indonesia, as a part of the link and match strategy between school programmes and industry demands, each vocational institution is encouraged to initiate cooperation with industries based on its location and needs.
Current trends and practices with regard to TVET in Indonesia are:
The ongoing TVET reforms and projects in Indonesia are in line with the current trends and practices.
‘TVET Revitalisation’ is the Indonesian Government’s key reform and strategy to improve the quality of its labour force by improving the quality of its TVET education system. It is established to produce quality human resources with relevant skills, competences and excellent character to increase their global competitiveness. Following the Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2016 on Revitalizing SMK in the framework of Improving the Quality and Competitiveness of Indonesian Human Resources,2 the revitalisation of TVET has the following objectives:
With this strategy, Indonesia aims to equip its human resources with 21st Century Skills to respond to rapid technological advancements, changes in business processes, as well as to changes in work structures in workplaces, which demand soft and transferrable skills. These skills include:
Shifting the enrolment share of general education to vocational education
Few years back, the share of enrolment of students in general education had been larger than that of vocational education (70:30). However, due to the demand for more human resources with relevant skills and competences, the government is shifting the share of enrolment in general high school (SMA) to vocational high school (SMK) from 70:30 to 30:70 respectively, and hopes to achieve the target by 2020. In support of this, more vocational high schools (SMK) are being established. According to BPS, in the year 2015 Indonesia had more SMKs (13,337; 52%) than SMAs (12,513; 48%). (fig. 8)
Figure 8: Proportion of Vocational High Schools (SMK) to General High Schools (SMA) in Indonesia35
Other key efforts include:
The main issues pertain to how collaboration with the industry is redefining the demand focus of TVET, and how the technological revolution requires an adequate balance between the skills demand and supply. The key issues and challenges are as follows36:
|ASEAN||Association of Southeast Asian Nations|
|BAN-PNF||Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Pendidikan Non Formal (National Accreditation Body for Non Formal Education)|
|BAN-PT||Badan Akreditasi Nasional-Perguruan Tinggi (National Accreditation Body for Higher Education)|
|BAN-SM||Badan Akreditasi Nasional Sekolah/Madrasah (National Accreditation Board of School/Religious School)|
|BLK||Balai Latihan Kerja (Vocational Training Centre)|
|BMW||Bekerja, Melanjutkan, Wirausaha (Work, Continue, Entrepreneur)|
|BNSP||Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi (National Professional Certification Board)|
|BPS||Badan Pusat Statistik (Indonesian Bureau of Statistics)|
|CLC||Community Learning Centre|
|D (I-IV)||Diploma Certificate (I-IV)|
|DTVE||Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education|
|FKIP||Faculty of Teaching and Educational Sciences|
|HDI||Human Development Index|
|IKIP||Institute of Teacher Training and Education|
|IPA||Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam (Natural Sciences)|
|IPS||Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial Social Sciences|
|ICT||Information and Communication Technology|
|K-12||Kindergarten to 12th Grade|
|KKG||Kelompok Kerja Guru (Teachers’ Working Group)|
|KKNI||Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Qualifications Framework)|
|LA-LPK||Lembaga Akreditasi - Lembaga Pelatihan Kerja (Accreditation Authority for Training Providers)|
|LA-LSPK||Accreditation Board for Training Centres|
|LPK||Lembaga Pelatihan Kerja (Job Training Institutions)|
|LPTK||Lembaga Pendidik Tenaga Kerja (Educational Institutions for Teaching Personnel)|
|LSP||Lembaga Sertifikasi Profesi (Professional Certification Institution)|
|MAK||Madrasah Aliyah Kejuruan (Islamic Vocational School)|
|MGMP||Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (Forums for Teacher-Subject Consultation)|
|MoEC||Ministry of Education and Culture|
|MoH||Ministry of Health|
|MoI||Ministry of Industries|
|MoMT||Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration|
|MoRTHE||Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education|
|MTU||Mobile Training Units|
|NQF||National Qualifications Framework|
|INQF||Indonesian National Qualifications Framework|
|P4TK||Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidikdan Tenaga Kependidikan (Center for Development and Empowerment of Teachers and Education Personnel)|
|PKBM||Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat (Community Learning Centre)|
|PKG||Pusat Kegiatan Guru (Centre for Teacher Activity)|
|PLPG||Education and Training of the Teacher|
|PLS||Pendidikan Luar Sekolah (Education Outside School)|
|PPG||Pendidikan Profesional Guru (Teacher Professional Education)|
|PSG||Pendidikan Sistem Ganda (Dual Education System)|
|RCC||Recognition of Current Competencies|
|RMSCS||Regional Model of Competency Standards|
|RPL||Recognition of Prior Learning|
|S 1/2/3||Sarjana (S1 = Bachelor, S2 = Master degree, S3 = Doctorate)|
|SD||Sekolah Dasar (Elementary Education)|
|SKK||Sertifikat Kompetensi Kerja (Work Competency Certificate)|
|SKKNI||Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Work Competency Standards)|
|SMA/GSS||Sekolah Menengah Atas (General Secondary School/Senior High School)|
|SMI||Small and Medium Industries|
|SMK/VSS||Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (Vocational Secondary School/Vocational High School)|
|SMP/JSS||Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior Secondary School/Junior High School)|
|STKIP||Colleges of Teaching and Educational Sciences|
|TK||Taman Kanak-Kanak (Kindergarten)|
|TUK||Tempat Uji Kompetensi (Competency Testing Centre/ Centre for Competence Testing)|
|TVET||Technical and Vocational Education and Training|
|VET||Vocational Education and Training|
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1 male(s)/female (2017)b
$1.015 trillion (2017 est.)b
$12,400 (2017 est.)b
Services: 45.9% (2017 est.)b
10.9% (2016 est.)b
Services: 47% (2016 est.)b
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