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TVET Personnel in ASEAN

Investigation in five ASEAN states

04.12.2018 by RECOTVET2

Prof. Dr. Dieter Euler

Eusl-Verlagsgesellschaft mbH

Year of Publication:

Country in Focus:
Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam



Executive Summary

TVET personnel is the backbone of any advanced TVET system. Therefore, in most ASEAN member countries the further advancement of TVET personnel is identified as a high priority. This study provides a comparative analysis of the current state of TVET personnel development in five ASEAN countries – Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam – exploring promising areas for further action. The investigation addresses the following key questions:

1. What are typical forms of pre-service and in-service training in the region? What different kinds of career development paths are available?

2. How is TVET personnel understood and categorised within the classifications of TVET teachers, TVET school management and in-company trainers? What are differences and similarities between the different classifications of TVET personnel?

3. How is the demand for TVET personnel quantified in the ASEAN member states? Are the institutional settings and national framework conditions well prepared for the challenges in pre- and in-service training?

4 . What are conclusions and recommendations for national TVET systems and TVET delivery in a national and regional context?

5. What good practices and lessons learned regarding TVET personnel development in the ASEAN member states can be concluded and used for transfer of knowledge?

Methodology and overview:

Based on a literature review, a framework of investigation covering the key questions was developed and operationalised into a questionnaire and corresponding interview guidelines. National TVET experts from the five  countries conducted a series of interviews with relevant stakeholders and compiled a document outlining the responses with regard to the questionnaire. Based on this empirical material, a comparative analysis was  conducted. This paper describes both the process and findings of the investigation in detail.

The framework of investigation described in chapter 2 distinguishes between pre- and in-service training for the three main target groups of TVET teachers, school managers and in-company trainers. It also includes the  objectives TVET personnel development is going to promote as well as the contextual factors which may impact on the provision of any development initiative. The core of the framework distinguishes the various  components of the personnel development process. The following figure provides an overview on the components considered and subsequently customised for the pre- and in-service training:


Chapter 3 summarises the main findings from the empirical investigation. First, the overarching objectives of TVET in the respective country and the relevance of TVET personnel development are described (chapter 3.1). Then various contextual factors with relevance for TVET personnel development are explored (chapter 3.2). In chapter 3.3 emphasis is put on the types of TVET personnel as distinguished in the countries under investigation. An extensive chapter then is devoted to the build-up of TVET teachers (chapter 3.4) followed by corresponding chapters on school managers (chapter 3.5) and in-company trainers (chapter 3.6). Details on the responses on a country-to-country basis are provided in annex 2. The study ends with a comprehensive appraisal and comparative overview of the status of pre- and in-service qualification for TVET personnel in the five ASEAN member states and holds some general and specific recommendations. A short overview of the summary and the recommendations can be found below. The comprehensive picture is provided in chapter 4.