Current Development of Vocational Professional Teacher Education in Indonesia
Issue 16: TVET Teacher Training for the Future of Work and Learning
TVET@Asia (31 January, 2021) - The TVET sector plays an important role in the development of human resources in the context of global competition. For this reason, the Indonesian government has issued Presidential Instruction Number 9 of 2016 concerning the revitalization of vocational high schools (known as Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan, or SMK) to improve the quality of human resources and enhance national competitiveness. One important aspect of SMK revitalization entails improving TVET teacher quality. This paper describes the current development process of professionalizing vocational teacher education (Pendidikan Profesi Guru, or PPG) in Indonesia in accordance with the demands of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (also known as Industry 4.0).
By law since 2015, professional teacher certificates are obtained through participation in pre-service or in-service PPG programs by candidates who have met the minimum educational requirements of bachelor’s degree (S1) or Level IV diploma (D4). The PPG program is implemented by government-approved higher education institutions (known as Lembaga Pendidikan Tinggi Kependidikan, or LPTK) and has a learning load of 36-40 credits. However, the learning load for in-service PPG participants can be reduced through recognition of prior learning (RPL). Previously, there were several ways to obtain a teacher certificate: through direct provision of the certificate, portfolio assessment/RPL, or participation in short education and training courses (Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru, or PLPG). Since 2020, in-service PPG also takes place through continuous professional development (CPD) in the form of short training courses conducted by the government, schools, teacher associations and/or the private sector. Based on a literature review followed by two online focus group discussions, we found some evidence of innovation in the current PPG model corresponding to the needs of Industry 4.0. However, further innovation is still required through improving cooperation with industry.