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Partnerships for Skilling ASEAN’s workforce

Business and industry collaboration in technical and vocational education and training in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam

09.04.2020 by RECOTVET

René Lenssen, Barbara Trzmiel (NIRAS-IP Consult)


Year of Publication:

Country in Focus:
Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam



Business and industry collaboration (BIC) ensures that TVET provides the skills needed to conduct companies’ business operations. From policy development to practical training – business and industry have an important role to play. The underlying factors that constitute successful cooperation are, however, less clear. How can collaboration go beyond the signing of MoUs to become long-term partnerships that lead to improved employability of learners? What are the policy measures that can facilitate business and industry engagement in shaping polices and improving the overall relevance of training? What good practices can be shared among ASEAN Member States (AMS) and beyond?

This study helps to answer these questions by shedding light on ongoing practices of BIC in TVET in six AMS: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam; neatly packed into a comparative analysis of AMS based on eight dimensions including recommendations and guiding questions for policy makers:

GIZ/RECOTVET commissioned this study to highlight underlying factors that constitute successful cooperation by shedding light on ongoing practices in AMS, facilitate policy learning among countries and contribute to building a knowledge base on developments in business and industry collaboration in TVET in ASEAN.

What differentiates this study from others is its focus on providing a detailed description of the status quo of business and industry collaboration in TVET in six AMS, namely Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam, and a comparative analysis of these countries according to different dimensions. The report also entails practical examples and concludes with a set of recommendations and guiding questions to help policy makers in their efforts to further strengthen business and industry collaboration in TVET.

The study is based on desk research involving a systematic review of literature, country visits to all six AMS to interview relevant stakeholders (Including national stakeholders, business membership organisations, development partners and training providers) and a write up and review phase in 2019. The results are laid out in four main chapters, following an introduction (chapter 1) and detailed description of the methodology (chapter 2): The literature review can be found in chapter 3, countries profiles in chapter 4, the comparative analysis in chapter 5, and recommendations in chapter 6.


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